AN ANALYSIS OF THE DOMESTIC WATER DEMAND AND SUPPLY
Water is one of the basic human need and imperative for sustaining quality of life on earth. However, its unbalance and unmanaged used make it scarce. This study analyzes the Domestic Water Demand and Supply in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. Focuses on the analysis of the sources of water resource in Ilorin, assessing factors affecting water demand and supply and their relationship. The methodology involve the use of questionnaires and interview method to gather necessary information from the state water Board and result gathered from the study area. The study was carried out through the use of structured questionnaire which was administered. Two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires were filled correctly. On the part of water Board questionnaire were correctly filled and returned. Random sampling was employed. The questionnaires were used to solicit information from a sample of respondents. The analytic techniques involve both the descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution, sample percentage and correlation analysis. Therefore it was deduced from the analysis that consumption and supply are 124.0 liters and 190.2 liters respectively per person per day. The conclusion from the result of correlation coefficient (1.9996) that there exists very high positive linear relationship between the household water demand and water supplied by the kwara State Water Board. The women and children are particularly vulnerable when water is short supply. Bursting of pipe, poor management, topography of an area, water wastage coupled with bias in water supply have been some of the factors influencing water supply. The study recommends that there should be concerted effort by both water users 9demand) and supplier to control water wastage so as to achieve the goal.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Water is essential to life and its supply, consumption and spatial distribution are closely associated with economic growth and the development of society. Apart from air, water is indispensable to life it is a foundation for human prosperity because adequate and high quality water supplies provide a basis for the growth and development of human social, economic and culture of people (Ward, 1975, Young, 2006). The importance of water to man cannot be overemphasized, it holds the most important benefit to man‟s sustenance beside shelter, food and clothing (Ajadi, 1996).
According to Amin and Mahmud, (2011) it is recognized all over the world that water is a vital resource to human existence and that is a major factor in commanding the progress of civilization. Water is essential in sustaining quality of life on earth, the sustainability of socially sensitive goods such as water depends on effective and efficient use of available water resources. Amin and Mahmud, (2011) also reported that the extensive use of water has increased globally and the efficacy of supply side measure is questionable owing to drastic increase in population, technological advancement and economic growth; the demand for water supplies is continuously increasing, numerous researchers have emphasized on water demand management rather than the supply side management. The water demand study in relation to water supply enables us to estimate how much the increase in demand for water supplies.
Water demand is the quantity that the treatment plant produce in order to meet all water needs in the community. Water demand includes water delivered to the system to meet the need of consumers, water supply for fire fighting and system flushing. On the other hand water supply refers to system for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage and distribution of water Admassu M. (1996).