AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTER PLAN, NIGERIA
Tourism developments plans are prepared to ensure orderly growth and development of the tourism industry .When the implementation outcomes of such plans are defined, the conventional approach is usually based on the ‘ex-post evaluation’. It is done long after the implementation of the plan is completed to enable identification of short comings and to learn lessons that can influence future decisions. Positive as the ex-post evaluation is there is value in evaluation during implementation, which usually is rarely carried out. This study is an attempt to appraise the Kano Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (KCTMP) while its implementation is still on-going using the ‘process evaluation’ method. Such approach is to enable the project mangers learn vital lessons that can lead to adjustment of strategies towards achieving improved outcomes. The KCTMP was prepared in 2005 and is to be implemented through 2005 to2020 the implementation is designed to be in phases of 4, 5 and 5 years horizons. The plan implementation began in 2005, currently the plan is in its second phase of implementation with the take-off stage (2005-2007 and phase 1 (2006-2020) completed in 2010. Data for the study were collected through interviews, field survey and from secondary sources. For the field survey purposive sampling techniques was adopted in which 4,132 samples of tourists’ receipts were collected from two accommodations and 482 receipts from Kano state tourism board. A set up criteria were used to establish the outcomes, explanations and implications. The research reveals that, the level of implementation of KCTMP is low. The problems militating against the successful implementation of KCTMP stem from a number of factors including the process of its preparation. The other factors are insufficient funding, duplication of responsibilities, low stake holder involvement, inadequate marketing and promotion, and poor publicity. Others are that the KCTMP failed to establish the role of Kano tourism industry in the areas of job creation and income generation. There is also the absence of any relevant information on the existing growth pattern of the tourism industry which can serve as a basis for benchmarking towards future evaluations. Tourism attraction and potentials were also poorly indentified as they were subjectively selected which later became a bottleneck to private investors. Recommendations are subsequently made to address the short comings in ensuring that the subsequent phases are successfully implemented.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Tourism is the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering for their needs and wants; Mentosh and Gupta (2008). Tourism is of major economic and social significance. It is one of the largest items in the world‟s foreign trade. It is also the most important export industry and earner of foreign exchange in many countries. Douglars (1981) states that “Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries of the world, and its study is of increasing academic and practical interest”. The significance of tourism has been recognized in the developed and developing countries. This can be seen in the establishment of government departments of tourism, widespread encouragement and sponsorship of tourism developments and the proliferation of small business and international corporations contributing to add driving benefits from the tourism industry. Tourism been a powerful and beneficial agent of both economic and social change has stimulated employment and investment. It is known to modified land use and economic structure, and it also makes a positive contribution to the balance of payment in many countries throughout the world. It is in line with these and many other expected benefits of tourism development, that the Kano State Ministry of Commers,Transport and Tourism commissioned Messrs Grand TrackLimited in August 2005, to carryout a Comprehensive Tourism MasterPlan (CTMP) of the State. This is for the realization that tourism development has the benefit of diversifyingthe economy of the state and generating revenue to strengthen its economic base.
Statement of Research Problem
The Kano Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (KCTMP) was prepared in 2005 to guide the development of the tourism industry of Kano state to the year 2020. Midway through its implementation however, there are growing concern that the plan is not adequately guiding the development of the tourism sector in the state nor has it engendered positive outcomes during 8 years of implementation. Useful as thoseobservations are, they however remain mere speculations in the absence of detailed studies. The criticisms are that the sector has not performed well in terms of the development of attractive tourists‟ destinations and activities, as well as its failure to ensure that the expected multiplier