AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT EFFORT ON THE PROVISION OF PORTABLE WATER SUPLLY
1.1 Background of the Study
Provision of potable water supply and sanitation is significant to people all over the World. In recognition of its relevance, WHO (1978) made potable water supply and sanitation component of Primary Health Care delivery System to achieve for the people of the World by the year 2000AD. WHO the same year, set basic human urban and rural water requirements at 60 lcpd per capita per day for all the people of the World. The WHO regards the provision of adequate potable water supply and access to sanitation as a basic right of everyone. Potable water supply in the study refers to that substance that is free from impurities, pathogenic organisms or other harmful elements which is without taste or odour, aesthetically appealing and socially acceptable for human consumption. Without adequate water supply, there cannot be sound sanitation. This is due to the fact that water is used for most sanitary practices such as washing, mopping floor and flushing of toilets. Sanitation in the study refers to the science and act of preventing diseases, promotion of health and management of waste so that waste does not constitute hazard to man and other creatures in an environment. Nigeria being conscious of the benefits of sanitation signed the United Nations treaty on International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade whose major objective was to ensure the provision of public potable water supply and sanitation to the people of the World between 1981 -1990.
The history of water supply and sanitation programme dated back to 1966 under regional administration. The water supply and sanitation programme in the country as at that time was limited to few cities and towns (NWSSP, 2000) Water Board was later established in the 36 states of Nigeria including Benue State. NWSSP, (2000) reveal that Nigeria, UNDP and other support Organizations gather hydrological data for the management of water supply and sanitation to Nigerians. Despite collaborative effort by government and non-governmental organizations to provide potable water supply for the people; the issue of potable water supply and sanitation coverage in the country was still low. The trend was attributed to inadequate planning and faulty implementation of public water supply and sanitation in the State.
According to Ocholi (2006) inadequacy and unsatisfactory safe water supply and sanitation led to outbreak of Guinea worm and other water and sanitation related diseases in Oju Local Government area of Benue State. Adequacy in this context means that all the people in the project areas are provided with enough water supply, while satisfaction in the context of the present study refers to utility derive from adequate potable water supply and sanitation services. In order to combact epidemic arising from water supply and sanitation, WaterAid Organization was invited by the Department for International Development (DFID) to Benue State in 1996 to implement water supply and sanitation programmes in urban and rural areas of the State. Urban refers to a geographical area that has essential social services such as good network of roads, power supply, safe water supply and sanitation among others. Rural refers to areas with poverty linked characteristics which distinguish them from towns and cities. Ebisemiju (2006) defined WaterAid as International Non-Governmental Charity Organization with its headquarters in the United Kingdom. The Organization was formed in response to the International Drinking Water Supply Decade in 1981-1990. According to him, the branch of WaterAid International Organization in the country is referred to as WaterAid Nigeria. Contributing, Ocholi (2006) stated that WaterAid Nigeria mandates include provision of potable water supply and sanitation services to the people of the World including Benue State. To achieve the set goal, WaterAid International Organization moved its office to Oju in 1997 and began pilot water and sanitation development process. WaterAid staff held advocacy meetings with the stakeholders which made the government and the host communities to support the projects; and the Benue State Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Draft of 2005. When this policy is signed into law, it will be a product of the National Water Supply and Sanitation Policy of 2000AD. WaterAid has also trained core and volunteer staff for the provision and management of water supply and sanitation projects in the State on resource management. According to Ocholi (2006) community management refers to being in charge of their water supply and sanitation services by selected representatives of the people. There is another water supply and sanitation management committee at the Local Government which is the top most management committee at this level. The body comprised highly influential personalities including chiefs, religious and opinion leaders. At the state level, the body is known as advocacy committee, and comprised first class chiefs, religious leaders; representatives of the State Planning Commission, Civil Society and the Media Organizations. The group lobbied top government executives and WaterAid partners to support the service delivery of water supply and sanitation projects in the State. They assess and select vulnerable local government areas for sitting water supply and sanitation projects in Benue State. Ishan (2008) stated that the Media Network and Civil Society Organization were incorporated into the water supply and sanitation committee so as strengthen the forces of lobbying for support and to foster monitoring mechanisms from the State to the grass root level in intervention Local Government Areas and the benefiting communities. According to her, the monitoring is expected to bring about greater success in the programme implementation after the leadership example of the incumbent Governor of the State. WaterAid has facilitated the formation of Water and Environmental Sanitation Unit (WESU) in seven local government areas in the State. Each of the unit is staffed with a team of professionals from different background seconded to the units. They are known as WESU staff. The teams were retrained by WaterAid Nigeria to implement water supply and sanitation projects in the intervention local government areas and vulnerable communities with manpower support from the Organization and other Non-Governmental Organizations. WESU staff in collaboration with WaterAid Nigeria facilitates selection and training of Water and Environmental Sanitation Committee (WESCOM) resident in each of the project communities in the State. The committee members were selected by each community and trained to manage water supplies and sanitation in the project communities. They also facilitate community selection of another group of volunteers’ residents in each project community. The groups were trained by WESU and after the training, they are called volunteer hygiene promoters. They educate people in each project community about the importance of having and using latrine and other sanitary systems, hygienic use of safe water and good sanitation practices as well as adequate refuse and sewage disposal. For example, washing hands with water and soap or with water and ash after toilet, before breast feeding babies, before preparing, serving and after eating meals; cleaning of households, toiletries and at critical times by observing good hygiene and sanitation.
1.3 bjectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of compensation management on employee performance. Specific objectives include:
i. To evaluate the impact of adequate potable water supply.
ii. To determine the level of satisfaction with potable water supply.
iii. To find out constraints to the service delivery and potable water supply.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What is the adequacy of public portable water supply?
ii. What is the level of your satisfaction with public potable water supply?
iii. What are the constrains to public potable water supply and sanitation service delivery?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
H0: There is no significant impact of adequate potable water supply.
Hi: There is significant impact of adequate potable water supply.
H0: There is no significant impact of satisfaction with potable water supply.
Hi: There is significant impact of satisfaction with potable water supply.
H0: There is no significant impact of constraints to the service delivery and potable water supply.
Hi: There is significant impact of constraints to the service delivery and potable water supply.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is specifically limited to the provision of water supply and sanitation, the scope of the study is concerned with service delivery, potable water supply. Factors such as adequacy and satisfaction of the services were examined.
1.8 Limitations of the study
The demanding schedule of respondents made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaires in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all research under this study but is restricted to the selected respondents used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided. Other limitations include;
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic