ANALYSIS OF THE HYGIENIC CONDITION OF CANTEEN FOOD SERVICES IN NIGERIA
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Canteen services stated way back in the 18th centaury, food and snacks are served as to the taste of the client. It may be seen as a place in the military, factory, camp, school etc. where people may buy food, drinks, sweets etc to eat. As advancement has set in, more services are rendered aside the normal buying and selling of food in modern canteens. According to the Ministry of Health annual report, 75% of sicknesses admitted in hospital are results of unhealthy food (MOH 2007), majority of which are food serve in the canteen all over the country. It suggests that eating from canteens without basic health consideration is like signing your own death warrant.
Health often said is wealth, we should pay critical attention to the food we eatand the environmental condition under which we eat if only we want to create wealth. Nowadays, children are becoming far more overweight in suburban schools, and on a personally view the schools canteens are a definite place to blame. If you look at an average school canteen, there is no respect for the weight of the child or no help for providing the healthier option; it is all about making money to fund a business. Ways of making the canteen healthier will be discussed and the worst offenders to canteen obesity. Canteens are terrible; people line up with their money, walk in and buy whatever food they want. There is no mother in their ear saying to purchase a healthier option; there is just a child who wants to walk in and purchase the best tasting and in most cases fattiest options.
As a personal view, to reduce problems like obesity people who have the power to should try and bring in healthier options, and encourage kids to eat them. There are endless possibilities to making canteens healthier, you can just ban unhealthy food, you can make it super expensive so know child can afford it or want to buy it, or you can just ban the canteen in general. But unfortunately these options won’t work because as much as people want to get rid of the obesity in children you have to think of the people who work at the canteen, as it is their job. A more productive way of improving canteens is having both options to healthy and the bad but making the healthy items appeals more to people. Or from a different approach you can have the unhealthy food but make it smaller in amounts, so you will be having less unhealthy foods, and then the students will be reduced to no choice but buy healthy food or accept there own home made meals, where the parents can control the healthiness of their children
It is without doubt that many Ghanaians students one way or the other eat food from a canteen and food cooked in their home as well. In the tertiary institution as Ho polytechnic, canteen services serve food ranging from breakfast to supper to snacks, special meals are also served to customers. Ghana like most developing countries; is struggling with the means to provide a comprehensive solutions to bad health as a result of bad eating conditions. The current system of ensuring sanitation in the food served in the canteen, restaurant, chop bars, etc. has proven woefully inadequate for the objectives circumspect
Places where better food in the Ghanaian context are served in a hygienic condition are very expensive to customers, hence majority of students, lecturers and non-lecturers in the universities, polytechnics and colleges are unable to afford. In this regard eating food cook by oneself has proven to be more beneficial in taste, cost, health, preferences, etc. Consequently many students in the colleges, polytechnics and universities preferred preparing their own food. These have being easy due to the increasing supply of gas cylinders and burners. These gadgets are fast and convenient in the cooking and quite affordable.
Many canteens are subsequently getting out of business because they lack modern facilities; there is no better furniture, sometimes food is served in the open air with flies all around. As the existing once are weeping for customers, others all about joining the search for customers. This in one way has drastically changed the canteen service. In spite of this some customers complain bitterly of being served left over meal on regular basis. The government through the school feeding programme is advocating on serving better meal to children for massive nourishment but, this programme covered only primary education which is even a pilot project. However the senior high school boarding house students repeatedly complain of rotten meal. Whiles lecturers and non-lecturers (believed to have money) drive extensively to far distant to enjoy good meals from expensive and luxurious canteens; the less privilege who were believed to be student tends to eat anything money can buy. These has be deviled the canteen service in all institution; the basic even to the tertiary institutions.
OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH.
To determine whether there is any significant differences in the food bought by student, lecturers and non-lecturers.
To determine whether there is any significant differences in the factors which influence the population to eat from the school canteen.
Null hypothesis: there is no difference between all k populations.
Alternative hypothesis: there is at least difference in two of the k populations.
H0: K1= K2= K3= 0
Hı: Ki≠ 0; where ί=1, 2 and 3
Where ki =students lecturers, and non-lecturers.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The study will bring us a fore insight into the importance of a hygienic condition and the best food to be served. The research will bring to light the socio-economic benefits of better feeding. The researches will additionally increased knowledge in both condition of service and the type of food to be served. The analysis of this project will provide vital information that will be useful to the government in policy and in decision making specifically to the Ministry of Health (MOH) which is directly responsible for the provision of public health services delivery in terms of policy formulation, monitory and appraisal regulation of the health services.
This study will also provide useful information on the popular perceptions regarding the food bought by lecturers, non-lecturers and students. Furthermore the study will be useful to groups or organizations currently working in Ghana and other developing countries in developing national policies on the evaluation and regulation of the food hygiene and proper eating habits in promoting safe, effective and affordable product to all citizens. Finally the research seeks to educate and give possible suggestions to the people on food and other health related issues.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The primary aims of these researches are to analysis and evaluate the conditions under which food is served and the time it is served and to find out whether there is any significant difference in the food bought by students, non-lecturers and lecturers,
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research is carried out in the Ho polytechnic community. It takes into consideration a reasonable number of students, lecturers and non-lecturers who one way or the other have ever used the service of a canteen more specifically the Ho polytechnic school canteen.
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the entire ten polytechnics in the country, the services of canteen cannot be overlooked by the student, non-lecturers and lecturers population; however this study was limited to only a school in the Volta region (Ho poly). Also the research is an observational study; this is the key focus experimental study has being ignored.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.
Some of the people felt reluctant to answer the questionnaire also few who answered did not comprehend how to answer the questionnaire properly. Certain vital questions relating improvement have being massively ignored. The researcher was not able to see all the lecturers, non-lecturers and students to share thoughts on the topic, due to busy schedules of the populations.
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY.
The study is divided into five chapters. CHAPTER ONE, Which is the introduction, presents the background information of the research topic, defining the statement of the research concern, stating the purpose of the study and research questions that the project seeks to answer, highlighting the significance of the study, pointing out the limitations of the study and defining the key terms that will de used constantly in this project. CHAPTER TWO is dedicated to the literature review in the field. it gives a historical overview of the canteen service in schools in the past time to the present time. CHAPTER THREE discusses the methodology used in gathering data for the study. It also provides justification for the approaches used in gathering data. CHAPTER FOUR is the analysis and discussion of the findings of the study. CHAPTER FIVE includes summary, conclusions and recommendations for further study.
Canteens may be seen as a place in the military, factory, camp, school etc. where people may buy food, drinks, sweets etc to eat. As advancement has set in, more services are rendered aside the normal buying and selling of food in modern canteens.
Food is anything liquid or solid which when eaten provide the body the ability to function properly, the food choice may be due to the taste, satisfaction, and other factors.
P-value is the level of significance where the calculated value of the test statistics is exactly the same as the critical value. It is the lowest level of significance at which the null hypothesis can be rejected.
Calculated value is a value of the test statistics that is calculated from sample data. It is compared to the critical value deciding whether or not to reject the null hypothesis.
Critical value is a value of the test statistics that serves as a boundary between the non-rejections and a rejection region for the null hypothesis.