ASSESSMENT OF ALMAJIRI SYSTEM OF EDUCATION; IT’S IMPLICATION FOR CHILD, FAMILY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
“Almajiri” is a hausa word meaning immigrant children in search of search of Qur’anic education. The children are sent out early in life to seek Islamic knowledge outside their environment. They are placed under Islamic teachers known simply as ‘mallam’ under whom they are supposed to learn the rudiments of the religion. Khalid (2000), describes almajiranci as seasonal migration of school age male children from rural to urban areas in northern Nigeria in search of Qur’anic education. In this contemporary era, Almajiranci has degenerated to the extent that it has now greatly exposed the children to various types of moral or social hazards. Many of these children metamorphasize into drug addicts, dropouts, street beggars etc. they seldom go back to their villages or home towns. The Almajiri system of education during the pre-colonial days, pupils hold with then parents for within the immediate environment from where the pupils came from (Junaid: 2004). The Danfodio revolution brought with it some modifications, the establishment of an inspectorate of quranic literacy, the inspectors reported directly to the emir of province, concerning all matters relating to school.
Shehu (2004), states that the colonialists specifically came up with policies aimed at destroying the traditional Qur’anic schools and replacing them with the western style school. Some people in protest of ave their children in trust to the Qur’anic schools wama to go to the village or its outskirt to teach them Qur’an. It was after independence that serious efforts were made to improve the system of Qur’anic schools. Islamic scholars and organizations like Jama’atul Nasril Islam (JNI) struggled to establish and maintain the schools. Sir, Ahmadu Bello Sardauna of sokoto’ established Quranic schools in muslim localities, this effort gave birth to Ishuyyats.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Almajiri pupils brought to learn the Qur’an, some dropout along the way and become a problem to the society. Most pupil withdraw due to hardship that is endured during the training, also with the growing complex nature of the society. People tend to complain at the act of begging which is becoming unpopular and unacceptable. In some cases, the very resourceful among the pupils do menial jobs (such as washing, grass cutting, farming and water barrow pushing) to earn their livelihood (Abdulkadir: 2003) Shehu (2004), viewed that the greatest havoc of begging is of how it expose the children to a number of environmental hazards psychologically it instills in the children a sense of inferiority, dependency, rejection and all sorts of negative psychological dispositions. In the social sphere their limitless movements and interactions exposes them, and in many cases gets them induced in a number of social vices, they easily come across various kinds of dangerous juvenile and adolescent peers. Indeed they come across all sorts of people and experiences in the society the good, the bad and the ugly. As juveniles, they can hardly discern right from the wrong, especially if they see people that are assured committing them. The problems mentioned above, led to my research on the ‘Almajiri system of education, its implication on child, family and nation.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objectives of this study is to investigate the almajiri system of education its implications on child, family and nation. The specific objectives are: –
i. To access the implications of the Almajiri system of education on child, family and national development.
ii. To examine the adequacy of the Almajiri schools curriculum.
iii. Determine the challenges and prospects of the system
iv. To identify the strategies for improvement
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What are the implications of Almajiri system of education on child, family and National development?
ii. What is the adequacy of the Almajiri schools curriculum
iii. What are the challenges and prospects facing the system
iv. What are the strategies for improvement
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at upgrading the Almajiri system of education that will benefit the pupils, mallams, government and the parents of the pupils. This study will benefit the pupils through provision of ways to improve the standard of education of the Almajiri and general welfare. The study will make necessary suggestions for the improved welfare of the mallams, who will also enlightened on conventional system of education that will operate side by side with the Qur’anic schools through integration approach This study like some previous one will make necessary suggestions to introduce and sustain standard guideline similar to the conventional school system and erecting structures at Qur’anic schools to serve as classes and hostels.
1.6 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is based on the following assumptions;
i. All Almajiri pupils beg for food, clothing and other necessities of life.
ii. The ‘mallam’ exploits the almajirai by making them to work on farms without reward?
iii. The inferiority and other social vices felt by the almajiri is caused by lack of welfare support from the government
iv. The act of begging has become unpopular and unacceptable.
v. The reforms of Almajiri system of education will bring significant changes to the living standard of both ‘mallams’ and the Almajiri.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work tends to investigate the Almajiri system of education its implication on child, family and national development in Kaduna state. The study is further delimited to Zaria local government area. This is to facilitate indepth and effective coverage of the problem.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
a. Almajiri/Almajiri: Traditional qur’anic education pupil
b. Alaramma/Alaramoni: A Qur’anic teacher who has committed to the entire qur’an into memory and write it.
c. Bara: The act of begging by traditional Qur’anic education pupil.
d. Almajiri/Almajiranci: Tradiitonal system of acquiring qur’anic education.
e. Makarantar Allo: Traditional Qur’anic school
f. Mallam/Mallami: Qur’anic teacherist
g. Ilmi: Islamic knowledge
h. Islamiyya: Modern school for Islamic education
i. Isangaya: Traditional Qur’anic boarding schools