ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS HOUSING PROGRAMMES IN AKWA IBOM STATE
Background of the Study
Housing is one of the basic needs of life. The problem of supply in quantity is experienced in most developing economies like Akwa Ibom State(Ekop, 2006), the study area. This problem has been receiving attention by government and the private sector since the state was created in 1987. The problem is not peculiar to the state alone, it cut across the whole nation. It is against this background that the New National Housing Policy (NNHP) came into effect in Nigeria in 1991. The objectives of the NNHP were to encourage and promote active participation in housing delivery in all tiers of Government, strengthen housing institutions to be more responsive to demands, emphasize housing investments which satisfy basic needs and encourage greater participation by the private sector in housing development (Ekop, 2006). It was also to provide housing for all Nigerians by the Year 2010. Roles were specified for the three tiers of government, federal, state and local, the apex and primary mortgage institutions and the various governmental agencies responsible for housing supply in order to achieve the overall national policy (FGN, 1991). The performances of the three tiers of government, their agencies, are among the issues to be examined in this study.
Since Nigeria attained independence in 1960, the provision of housing has become a paramount corner stone of the policies of variable government at the Federal and State level (Onibokun, 1985). These are manifested in the various National Development plans of the successive Federal Government, the high population of Nigeria with an estimated annual growth rate of 3% has further created stress in the housing demand of its citizenry (Ozo, 1987). Government has consistently fallen short of the demand inspite of the conscious effort by both private and public sector to make for the provision of housing. Housing programs in Nigeria has really suffered in the past decades, although several attempt has been made by the government to solve housing problems but it still prove abortive. The slogan aimed at providing housing for all by the year 2000AD has become in effected in the Nigerian context.
According to Etim et al (2006); government’s approach to housing production has been through a provider system which is responsible for the high cost of finished houses. The second problem is the housing finance system which is hamstrung by lack of suitable forms of credit for the provision of houses for the less privileged. This problem is consequent upon current pervasive level of poverty, inhibiting savings and investment, poor fund mobilization and paucity long term finance for housing loan recovery
Statement of Problem
Akwa Ibom State have been experiencing increase in population since the state was created in 1987, without corresponding increase in the provision of social facilities such as housing (Ekop, 2006). It has been ascertain that 100% of housing stock in the country including the study area is provided by both the private and public sector, which at the same time are facing numerous problems such as difficulty in land acquisition, institutional bottlenecks and difficulties arising from the operation of land-use-Act. This turn have affected the housing supply inspite of the conscious effort made by all operators in housing development and this have arisen the state of overcrowding in our state.
Also the new Federal Government housing policy and the strategy adopted for its implementation often fail due to insufficient regards to standard planning process which makes it necessary that statistical information on resources and people should be obtained to ensure sustainable housing delivery in the state. In practice, housing delivery in the state has been through the emergency housing relief programs which favoured only the average and high income earners. Therefore it is expedient to assess the performance of government and private sector initiatives in housing delivery in the state with a view to enhance sustainable housing delivery in the state.
1. To what extent does the various housing programmes succeed to addressing needs and demand of the citizens within the study area?
2. Does access to land and capital constitute a problem to various housing programs in the study area considering the commercial pressure faced by this sector?
3. How does the government agencies and the private sector contribute to the housing supply within the study area?
4. What solution could be found to encourage the public and private sector to adopt measures of sustainable housing for citizens of the study area?
Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to assess the extent to which various housing programmes have succeeded to ensure the provision of sustainable housing programmes in the State.
1. To examine broadly the level of success of the past various housing programmes in addressing the housing needs and demand of Nigerians as well as the people of the study area.
2. To examine how easy it has been to gain access to land and capital towards various housing development.
3. To assess generally and also within the context of the NNHP the contributions of government agencies and private sector in housing supply between 1987 and 2007.
4. To outlined and recommend some principles of public and private sector housing development measures aimed at achieving sustainable housing programmes in Nigeria and the study area in general.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between housing programmes and stock of housing in Akwa Ibom State.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between the housing programmes and the stock of housing in Akwa Ibom State.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is to assess various government housing programs towards enhancing sustainable housing provision in Nigeria. The study is limited to Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria.
Significance of the Study
In Nigeria, despite diverse programs adopted by the government to issues of housing problems as well as huge capital investments in the housing sector, the supply of new housing has not been able to match the demand. The effect is the existing yawning gap between the high demand and inadequate supply of housing stock. Gyuse (1984) observes that government alone could not provide enough finished housing to interested public. It is therefore clear that the private sector (formal and informal) has displayed development of housing estates. The research will help the state government and all agencies involve in housing provision to review and streamline their policies which will inturn meet the primary needs of individuals, it will also help the state government to know the annual budget that will be allocated to housing sector.
This research project will also help the non-governmental organisation (NGO’s) to know their need in housing sector and also to contribute their quarter in the housing delivery or to partner with the public in housing delivery. And finally, this research will help the future student who may wish to carry out research on housing programs in the state.
Housing is undisputably one of the greatest necessities of life. It ranks next to food. Government has consistently fallen short of demand in spite of the conscious effort by both private and public sectors to make for the provision of housing. So if available stock is short of individual housing need they can have negative effects on the society, economy, human beings, environment etc, it is against the background of the above that it justifiable becomes necessary to suggest solutions to the housing problems and various housing programs implemented in Akwa Ibom State since it creation.
Limitation of the Research
The research is limited to Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria which encompasses 31 Local Government Areas and Uyo as the State Capital.
Constraint of the Study Area
During the conduct of the study, certain factors were identified as impediments. For instance, data’s relating to government housing programmes, NGO’s CBOs and real estate developers involved in housing development were difficult to obtain, though the existing housing stock and programs were derived from government agencies and parastatals, though not comprehensive and detailed enough but were useful particularly as they provided necessary information for the study.
Organisation of the Study
The study is organized in six chapters. The first chapter highlights the pertinent background information about the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, research justification, limitation of the research, constraint of the study area and organisation of the study. The second chapter give the theoretical framework of the study and reviews of the existing literature of the research. The third chapter defines the limit of the study area, brief history, geographical location, relief, population, soil and vegetation, climatic conditions and existing map of Akwa Ibom State under study. The fourth chapter defines the research methodology of the study which includes the target population, method of sample and sampling technique, method of data collection and the analysis. The fifth chapter gives data presentation and analysis.