SCIENCE LABOURATORY

BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME COMMERCIALLY REPARED YOGHURT

BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME COMMERCIALLY REPARED YOGHURT

ABSTRACT

Bacteriological Assessment of commercially prepared yoghurt was carried. The pour plate technique was employed using Nutrient Agar, de man Rogosa sharpe (Mrs) and CLEO (Cystein, Lactose, Electrolyte Deficiency) fo bacteria. Gram staining and biochemical tests were carried out to identify the bacterial organisms isolated. Out of the five samples of yoghurt analyzed, the total viable bacterial count raged fro 1.5 x 102 to 6.5 x 102cfu/ml. Th organisms isolated from the five different brands of yoghurt include speies ofStaphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus.Sample E had the highest bacteria count range from 4.5 x 102 to 6.5 x 102cfu/ml. Bacillus spp was the most isolated organisms in the product which could be bcause of easy distribution of their spores in the environment and their ability to with standard harsh environmental conditions. The result revealed the bacteriological safety of yoghurt and were of high quality. All effort should be made to sustain the standard.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

1.1Background of the Study

Diary foods provide and ideal food system for the delivery of beneficial bacteria to the human gut. Given the suitable environment that milk and certain dairy products including yoghurt and chegese) provided, it promotes growth and support viability of these cultures. Diary products such as yoghurt contain porbiotic” cultures, e.g Lactocacilli and which are currently among the best known examples of functional food”. Their associated health claims rangefrom alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, treatment of diarrhea, cancer suppression and reduction of blood cholesterol (McDonagh et al, 2007.

Yoghurt is a cultured diary prduct produced by lactice acid fermentation of milk and is also a means of preserving the nutyrients in milk (Hui, 2002; Chandan, 2009). It is generally known as cultured milk, as it is derived from the action of bacterial on all or part of the lactose to produce lactic acid, carbon dioxide, acetic acid, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and several other components that gives the product its characteristic fresh taste (Tamine and Robinson, 2004). It is produced by the lactice fermentation of milk using a combination of bacteria such Lactobacillus bulgaricus andstreptococcus thermophilus (Hui, 2002) and is consumed as a food and thirst quenching benevrage (Alfa-Lawal, 2004).

Yoghurt has al;so been described as a notoriously balanced food containing almost the nutrients present in milk but in a more assimilable form and they can be produced from skimmed or whole mnilk and there is a large range of falvours available commercially (Anthar, 2006).

Fermented milks, like fresh milk form which they produced, are liable to contamination. The primary contaminants in yoghurt produced commercially in Nigeria are various bacteria general (Surriayarachchi and Fleet, 2001) which include Bacillus spp which has been found to be the major contaminant of commercially prepared yoghurt. This could be probably be because of easy distribution of their spores in the environment. The spores  can withstand harsh environment condition. Bacteria present in yoghurt utilize some of the acid and produce a corresponding decreases in the acidity which may favour the growth of putrefactive bacteria (McDonagh et al, 2007).

1.2Objective of the Study

1)          To determine bacteriological safety of yoghurt.

2)          To isolate bacterial organisms from yoghurt

3)          To determine the bacterial load of yoghurt

1.3Statement of Problem

Some yoghurt have been found to loose heir taste and produce uncharacteristic odour before their expiry date which may be as a result of contamination through the processing line, packaging and or poor handling. Bacterial infestation has been reported among consumers of yoghurt leading to vomiting, diarrhea, stomach upset and flatulence.

1.4Significance of the Study

The result of this research work would revealed the microbial safety of the yoghurt sample. Also the yoghurt commercially retailed in Enugu are of high quality and all effort should be made to sustain the standard.

1.5Limitation of the Studies

This research work was limited to bacteriological assessment of some commercial prepared yoghurt retailed in Enugu Metropolis. The cost of media and reagent was high thereby limiting the number of samples for the research work.