BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PALM WINE
This work shows how to identify the various microorganisms in palm wine and how to isolate the pathogenic organisms in palm wine viz ‘NKWUENU’, ‘ITI’, and ‘IKOT’. The attributes were identification of bacteria and yeast. All showed the spoilage rate between the erect-stem and fallen stem palm wine as shown in table 4.4 and 4.5.
Also, the type of microorganisms present varied. In Nkwuenu, the results show the growth of streptococcus, lactobacillus and leuconostoc, and in IkOT, the result shows the growth of micrococcus, lactobacillus and baccilus in it. The result shows the growth of sarcina and acetobacter, saccharomyces and candida were common in Nkwuenu and Iti for yeast identification at 6 hourly intervals for 3 days.
Also, the above observation shows that fermentation goes on in the market palm wine varieties even during storage. The microscopic and gram reaction of the microbe were also obtained both varieties for designation B the shape of the cell when view in a microscope is cocci in chain and in pairs which is streptococcus and its gram reaction is positive.
It was noted that the source of this microbes is contaminated from tapers knife, the bamboo, funnel, air, the bark of the palm tree and the remaining palm wine in the calabash, which are used to tap the palm wine from palm tree.
Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage that is very popular among Africans and Nigeria in particular. It is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of sugar and other fermentable materials in palm sap. The major sources of palm wine in Nigeria are Eraesis guineensis and raphia palm Raphia hooken (Okafor 1987).
Palm wine is usually a whitish sugary liquid, which is effervescent because the microbes causing the fermentation are alive when it is consumed. Among the land plants, the palm is very distinguished. It has a columar stem whose height range is usually between 30-50 feet (9-15 meters) high. The stem is crowned with giant leaves which are entire and folder fan at first, but usually the blade splits into segments and in some genera, the segments develop into independent leaves – lets the inflorescence is a spike like or much branched at first usually enveloped in one or more conspicuous sheathing breaks. It manifests itself in more than two thousand species and several hundred of genera.
Elaesis guineensis is a source of palm kernels, palm oil, palm wine and brooms in rural areas of southern Nigeria and West Africa in general. Palm are found in the meadows, stepper, and deserts on the mountains and all through the tropical and sub tropical forests of West Africa (faparsusi 1973).