This project is constructed based on careful theoretical analysis of materials of chance and reasons for the selection of the materials. The theoretical analysis of heat principles and temperatures of the different fervid which in solid stage should set in the mould were analyzed. The basic principles of cooling of the mould to avoid physical problems of cracks and distortions involved when high temperature are were studied.  The cup mould design started with the choice of the optimal dimensions and then production of the wooden pattern. With the completion of the wooden pattern of dimensions 26cm x 12cm x 5cm, the pattern was filled with chemical treated sand and fired over the oven for complete drying exercise.  With the drying operation over, the patterns were filled with the sand and rammed well.  The risers and provision for the core were all provided.  The upper and lower parts of the pattern were tightly fixed together.  The instance of the complete filling and ramming, molten aluminum from the furnace was poured into the pattern.  After about one day, the pattern was opened and then the formed cup mould of aluminum produced. The cup mould was further cleaned and polished to give excellent production during use. The cup mould was taken to Onitsha in a private plastic company, where it was test run and used to produce over low prolits type cups.



In recent years, Nigeria lays strong emphasis on the manufacturing of both industrial and household products within the country, rather than on importation of materials of different shapes, patterns uses.  The trend towards indigenous products imposed severe action on the banning and clamping down on importation of plastic items and materials of different uses.  Thus, the situation results in getting plastic items from outside the country very difficult and more over very expensive. Nigerian household and industry, is stretched with the necessity for different plastic products.  This has been made possible due to the production of different dies and moulds which are used in both light injection plastic productions and blow mould plastic production. For any item to be produced, whether it is Polyvng Chloride Constituent (PVC), Polypropylene (PP), Polythylen (PE) or Polychloride (PC), the mould must be used for the patterns and shape required.

The possibility of producing materials and plastics fittings or utensils of different colours and shapes is as a result of the production of moulds of different sizes and shapes. The application of moulds and dies extended into all facts of activities; be it plastic moulds or even moulds for the bottle industry.  The automobile industry is able to thrive and make remarkable progress is as a result of the mould and die technology which has made it possible for the production of plastic automobile parts of different sizes and intricate designs. In most cases where fabrications by use of welding and forming, the production of very difficult patterns have been as a result of mould and die production.  The domestic homes where all suite of utensil, storage tanks and other accessories are in vogue, the possibility of such arrays of materials in due to the mould technology which is in vogue today.  The medical world where materials that are used in the heart support and alternative limb and leg – artificial – technology is in use, is due to advances in the plastic mould technology and engineering.


The identification of need for the cup mould is evident from the fact that there is no activity of human race that can proceed without having cups in the home.  The use of cups for drinking water, drinking of assorted types of wines grand the project its prominence.  Everyday, more than one billion cups are used in homes all over the world.  There would be no existence of cups are not readily available for different uses as adapted by the users.  Cups, especially plastics are very convenient for use in homes without fear of breakage and possible accidents as would have been the case if its bottle cups or any other material.


The purpose of this project is to design and construct a punch and die for the production of cups that is functional affective. The mould should have other necessary provision for cooling and mounting on plastic machines without any default.  The mould should be of a material that can withstand heat and high temperatures.  The purpose of this is to produce a cup mould capable of producing over ten thousand (10,000) cups in an hour.


The definitions which are commonly found in this discuss shall be the reference to moulds and patterns. A mould is a piece of instrument made from any type of material which has pattern for the production of shapes when it is fill ed with fervid in a molten form.  The molten fervid eventually solidifies to assume the storage of the pattern formed in the mould.