SCIENCE LABOURATORY

EFFECT OF ORGANIC WASTE ON WATER BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

EFFECT OF ORGANIC WASTE ON WATER BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

ABSTRACT

Effect of organic waste on water biological properties in Enugu metropolis Enugu State were carried out using four (4) samle (Obiagu, Abakpa, Emene, UUwani). The water sample were analyzed for various chemical and microbial parameter. The bacteriology techniques. The micro organisms isolated and characterized include eight (8) bacterial while fungal (4) genera. The bacterial isolated were klebsilla, pseudomonas, Escherichia, staphylococcus, proteus and bacillus and the fungal isolated were Aspergillus, Rizophus,  fusarum and penicillum. Physiochemical parameters studies revealed that the water after compared WHO shows that is very high than standard. The result shows that all the sample are contaminated. It is therefore recommended that waste or dump site should be far from stream River or any surface water.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

Water is indispensable to life and it is given priority in sitting of settlements, industries and farms. Harigan and Macance (2001) reported that water sourced from river, streams and lakes are subjected to calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Also silica, free carbonic acid, oxygen, carbonic acid and other trace element Cifluent et al (2002) pointed out that one of the most deadly contamination of water is faecal contamination, water bodies got contaminated with faeces of human during activities such as defaecation, these  kind of contaminations common in rural areas where they defecate wash swim in water bodies. Moreover, the bursting of soakway pit into water bodies are also common both in rural and urban areas. Industries discharge into rivers, streams etc also causes the presence of knoxocarbonates and silicates these, apart form contamination induces permanent hardness in water.

A review of 28 studies carried out by he World Bank gives the evidences that incidence of water borne diseases are related to the quality of water and sanitation available to users. Ikeh et al (2002) highlights that  a contaminated water organisms especially of the enterobacteriaceae group e.gEscherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebseilla pneumoniae and non coliforms; Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Versinia enterolitica are high contaiminated in the water. Cabelli, (2002) explains that these organisms when ingested in the body produces toxins that causes food borne diseases such as cholera, salmonellosis, gastrointestinal disorder, Hepetitis Piolio, amoebic dysentery, crystosporidiosi, Toxoplasmosis etc.

Ksiteman (1990) explains that in order to prevent the outbreak of water there are needs to preserve and treat water supplied to towns and cities. The methods of treatment of water are thus, boding of water at 1000C, the prevents the growth of pathogenic organisms, boiling of water does not get rid of spore forming organism, water and killing of pathogenic organisms.

Organic waste is produced wherever there is human habitation. The main forms of organic waste are household food waste, agricultural waste, human and animal waste. In industrialized countries the amount of organic waste produced is increasing dramatically each year. Although many gardening enthusiasts ‘compost’ some of the their kitchen and garden waste, much of the household food waste goes into land fill sites and is often the most hazardous waste. The organic waste component of lanfill is broken down by micro-organisms to form a liquid leachate’ which contains bacteria, rotting mater and may be chemical contaminants form the landfill. This leachate can present a serious hazard if it reaches a water course or enters the water table. Digesting organic matter in land fill if it reaches a water course or enters the water  table. Digesting organic matter in landfills also generates methane, which is a harmful green house gas, in large quantity. Human organic waste is usually pumped to a treatment plant where it is treated, and then the effluent enters a water course, or it is deposited directly into the sea, little effort is made to reclaim the valuable nutrient or energy content of this waste.

In developing countries, there is a different approach to dealing with organic waste. Infact, the word ‘waste’ material and reclaim it for further use. Where large quantities of waste are created, usually in the major cities, there are inadequate collected facilities for dealing with it, and much of this waste is either left to rot in the stress, or is collected and dumped on open land near the city limits. There are few environmental controls in these countries to prevent such practices.

1.2Aims of the Study

1)          To determine the effect of organic waste on water

2)          To determine the effect of organic waste on physical, chemical and biological properties of water in Enugu State.

1.3Statement of Problem

In urban communities drinking water are sourced from well, spring, rain etc. These water before taken are not going any form of treatment, these has caused the high rate of water borne diseases. Ikeh et al (2002) explains that the outbreak of water borne diseases in Enugu State is due to the effect of organic waste on the biological properties in water and these have resulted to deaths of the infected individuals as a result of poor response by medical practitioners to this problem. He further states that outbreak of water borne disease is gradually become an epidemic if adequate steps are not taken to combat it. Apart form urban communities people also in rural areas do not have good source of water this has also caused increased in rate of water borne disease. These statement thereby prompts the need for an analysis to be conducted on the effect of organic waste on water biological properties in Enugu State.

1.4Hypothesis

Ho:   Organic waste can affect the biological properties of water

Hi:   Organic waste cannot affect the biological properties of water.

1.5Significance of the Study

The results of the organic waste on biological properties of water, water sourced from Abakpa, Emene, Obiagu Abakpa  would determine the bacterial load and organisms responsible for contamination of water close to organic waste. These would determine the prevalence of water borne diseases in these area and would ensure that prevention techniques such as boiling water, adequate treatment of water borne disease . Thereby ensuring the control for it emergence.

1.6Limitation of the Study

Lack of finance in purchase of reagent and material were non-existence in the laboratory, and this affect the source of information thereby limiting the scope of the project work. This project work is limited to determine the effect of organic waste on physical, chemical and biological properties of water in Enugu State