EFFECT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
This research examined Effect of Training and Development on Employee Performance with special reference to Guaranty Trust Bank Plc. The research adopted survey research design. Data were gathered through primary source with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of sample, this was used to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the respondents. Data garnered were presented on table using percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the used of Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows that Job performance is dependent on staff training, also, Job dedication is dependent on training received, Job commitment is a function of training received, Job security is a function of staff training, Labour turnover is not function of training received. Based on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff and management of Guaranty Trust Bank Plc.
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Business is becoming more complex and human elements remain an indispensable component of its survival. Training is a sort of investment from which an organization expect some positive returns. It involves the development or modification of behaviour of employee in such a way that they become more effective at their duty post. Flippo (2000) said that when employees have been selected, recruited and inducted, such employee must be developed to better fit the job and the organization since on one is perfectly fit at the time of hire. Soetan, (2005) also buttressed this point when he said that training is always necessary when requite skills, attitude and knowledge are either inadequate or completely lacking and when performance deficiencies that can be eliminated through training are identified.
However, training is often aimed at increasing productivity, improving quality of work, raise moral as well as development of new skills, knowledge and attitude. Development on the other hand, is a hand is a learning activity which is directed toward future rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. The focus of development tends to be from future manpower requirement and other growth needs of individual in the workplace. Training and development are not synonymous. While training is the process of improving job behaviour of an employee in the immediate, development is future oriented often geared toward preparing an employee for greater responsibilities in the future.
Effective management of change calls for a dynamic human resources development policy to ensure that each staff in an organization possesses requisite knowledge, skills experience and expertise for the performance of his task. The Administrative approach is based on the number of employees to be trained in one year at a particular period. The needs of the employee or the organization is not considered rather it depends on whose turn it is to go for training and the number of staff the budget can take care of. This approach, the employees is sent to improve his/her welfare either financially, academically or otherwise. The employees is sent for training for his/her personal benefit. In organization, a measure of polities exist as the employee interact with one another here, training selection is based on either or some of the following lobbying, setting rid of some troublesome employees and projection of individual’s personal image, his is know as political approach. The organization development approach is usually adopted where the management cadre in an organization are made to attend training programmes as a result of poor performance of a unit or division as the case may be.
In systematic approach, the need of the employee is identified from the gap between his actual performance and the desired performance. Periodic performance appraisal can provide very useful data to identify these need systematic approach to training is preferred in profit oriented organization because it is often job related and is directed toward the achievement of organization goals.
Training and development usually takes two forms namely:
· House training
· Off house training
In-house training is usually carried out within the organization, induction course, on-the-job training coaching programmes, etc here, the training is done in the normal work environment situation with the trainee using the actual tools, equipment and material that he/she will use when he/she is fully trained. On the other hand, off-house training takes place outside the organization, for instance management consultant and training institutions organized training programmes which employee attend evaluation training it decides whether training justifies it cost and whether it is doing what it set out to do.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In line with recent changes in business circles, human resources department (HRD) have come to stay. This department is usually responsible for handling matters on training and development while personnel and administrative department which have been in existence are still in charge of all other matters. This is done to ensure that all employees are assisted with programmes to enable them acquire additional knowledge, skill and attitude with which to perform their jobs. It is common knowledge that most companies recognize that most their principal asset lies within the skill of their employee at all level. Therefore, this research work is aimed at finding answer to questions relating to the impact of training on performance.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the research, attempt shall be made to find answer to the following question
Is job performance dependent on staff training?
Is job dedication dependent on training received?
Is job commitment a function of training received?
Is labour turn-over a function of training received?
1.3 THE HYPOTHESIS WHICH THIS STUDY TESTED ARE
HO: Job performance is not dependent on staff training
H1: Job performance is dependent on staff training
HO: Job dedication is not dependent on training received
H1: Job dedication is dependent on training received
HO: Job commitment is not a function of training received
H1: Job commitment is a function of training received
HO: Job security is not a function of staff training
H1: Job security is a function of staff training
HO: Labour turn-over is not function of training received
H1: Labour turn over is not function of training received
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect or extent which training motivates workers toward greater job performance in the banking industries. It also examines the training method being employed and it examines what can be regarded as adequate manpower raining and development on employees’ performance and how organization can improve employee performance beyond the impact of training and development.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Many organization spend a great deal time and money on training and development of their employee, however the management of some companies are often worried about the effectiveness of such training and development programmes in terms of content, method usefulness and desired to content, this research effort attempt to evaluate the impact of training and development on employees performance of term in the banking industries.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Training can result in improve individual dedication and job satisfaction as performance when training requirement are determined by analyzing the work to be done the manpower resources available and the present and future environmental demand or organization. All new employees, regardless of their previous training, education and experience, need to be introduced to their new employee’s work environmental and to be taught how to perform specific tasks, moreover specific occasion, for training arise when job changes, and new skills must change introduced by advancing automatic.
As some employees respond to continue training, they can be progressively increase their value to organization and prepare themselves for promotion continue training can help employee to develop their ability to learn, adapting themselves to work methods, learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to method changes in job content and work relationship.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The bank under investigating, Guaranty Trust Bank had about 3,000 employee in the entire organization, it also has about 15 branches in Lagos due to the monetary and time constraints, the researcher limit the research to the Allen Avenue branch and training center also situated and it head office. The study also does not intend to look into other factors hat are know to improve employees job performance such as motivation of staff in terms of monetary reward fringe benefit etc.
1.8 OPERATIONALISATION / DEFINITION OF VARIABLES
For the purpose of this study, a number of concepts would feature prominently and attempts will be made to define them within the frame work of this project.
TRAINING: This is the systematic acquisition of skill, concept or attitude that results in improved performance in an organizational setting.
Training needs: This represent the gap between the kind of performance an employee has and the kind of performance which is expected to have which can otherwise be bridged by systematic training.
1.9 BRIEF HISTORY OF GUARANTY TRUST BANK PLC
Guaranty Trust Bank Plc received it license to commence commercial banking activities in Nigeria in August 1990, however the curtain actually rose in February 1991 when the bank opened the doors of its first office called “the Plaza” to the public. The Plaza becomes a high benchmark for style and service in financial service provision. It may not have been rare but it was certainly not common that a new bank would insist on having its own purpose built premises and they go ahead to invest massively in functional technology before official commencing business. This was simply a reflection of Guaranty Trust Bank’s insistence on doing things right and doing the right things, from the very beginning it was important that the customers should begin to perceive and experience value added services, right from the moment they stepped into the premises. This is they unifying aesthetic quality at all branches from one branch in 1991, guaranty Trust Bank currently has twelve branches each strategically located to penetrate the major hubs of commerce in Nigeria. The roll out stated with the plaza in 1991. The following year, the Ikeja and broad street branches aware opened between 1995 and 1998, branches were opened in Apapa, Kaduna, Abuja, Onitsha, Aba Ibadan and Warri.
Meanwhile, the bank was moved its corporate headquarters from the plaza to plural house in October 1994. Then in September 1996, the bank became a publicly quoted organization with its share traded on the Nigeria stock exchange. In its first year on the exchange, Guaranty Trust Bank earned the president’s merit award, the highest award bestowed on deserving members of the stock exchange. In 1998, after an in-depth strategic planning exercise, the offshoot of which included a major restructuring of the organization, the vision was tested and held through while the mission statement was reviewed as follow. “We are the first class financial services provider possessing the urge to win at all times consistently adding value to all stakeholder. The bank has remained a learning organization learning new ways to delight its customer-sweet on the counters, a hand umbrella on a rainy day, aesthetic, function premises and technology has always been a passion with management from its early days of operations until today, guaranty trust bank has utilized functional contemporary technology that has kept is ahead of the curve.