FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The increasing role and impact of public administration in the lives of people in modern time has engineered much concern about how public policies are made and implemented. This work tries to look at the process of formulation and implementation of governmental policies. It is important to note that for any management system or government to effectively carry out the task of achieving its objective, that management system must arm it self with the tool of effective policy formulation and implementation to enable it adjust to the environmental changes or react to the demands of the environment. Policy formulation and implementation like decision making requires careful thinking and planning. It is essential therefore that policies be designed and implemented to suit particular situation to which they are to be applied to.
The tripod vision of Udenwa, which was in the area of Agriculture industrialization and re-orientation no doubt was an attempt by the former governor of Imo State to resolve the protracted crises in the Nigerian economy. The tripod vision was designed to address the latest challenges facing the entire people of Imo State especially the most vulnerable groups, the down trodden and the poor in the rural communities. It is a strategy which goals are the identification, planning and implementation of programmes and projects aimed at poverty reduction and sustainable human development. The tripod vision was a participatory and all embracing movement towards the realization of the full potentials of the people of Imo State through public private partnership relationships.
Before the adoption of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) as an economic development strategy in Nigeria in September 2003, the government has put in place in Imo State the Tripod Vision whose objectives were in the area of Agriculture, industrialization and Re-orientation. The birth of NEEDS reform agenda and SEEDS subsequently became more of the amplification of the objective of the tripod vision which provided a soft landing for SEEDS in the state. The development agenda of the people of Imo State was articulated under the leadership of the government of Chief Dr. Archike Udenwa within a 2015 visionary horizon defined by the Imo Tripod Vision seed of economic social and political emancipation. The development of this framework had its origin at the inception of the first tenure of the administration in 1999. The fruit of this effort was the first and second Imo Economic Summits held in 2000 and 2002 respectively. There were also several studies and other consultation aimed at identification and highlighting the development challenges facing the state. These initiative culminated into the launching of the Tripod vision of the administration. The Tripod vision was a medium term agenda for realising the enormous potential of the state, under the direction of a people oriented Tripod Vision and guided by a mission of balanced economic development and poverty reduction. It’s major thrust is the full and active constructive engagement of citizens in productive Agricultural and Industrial productive activities as well as value orientation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The lack of adequate information and attention to the process of formulating and implementing public policies and programmes, has led to lack of impact or low level of impact of most programmes implemented within the country. This problem has been caused by many inadequacies existing in the process of policy formulation and implementation within the country. First, the process of policy formulation has not been adequately consultative even with some key stakeholders Government officials and donor representatives have dominated the initiation of most public policies with the private sector playing no or a minimal role. The low involvement of private sector and civil society in policy formulation was due to the long period of military rule in the country that created a culture of fear and passiveness in national policy issues. The creation of a more competitive political environment following the re-introduction of civilian rule and a multi party system is gradually changing the scene as civil society and lobby groups find more space to agitate for issues of interest to them.
Poor policy implementation has also been one of the major problems in the country’s policy process. One of the major reasons for this state of affair is lack of continuity, consistency and commitment to programme implementation by succeeding government. Where such programmes are continued, they are starved of sufficient financial resources and well trained manpower to guarantee success.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
This study is an examination of the personality characteristics of making public policy in Nigeria and the focus is on the personality, idiosyncratic factors and the determination of the extent to function of individual styles and value of public policies in Nigeria. It will also examine the process of policy implementation and will also reveal main obstacles to the effective implementation of public policies.
Finally, this work will unearth whether this programme vision (Agriculture, industrialization and re-orientation) did make any significant impact on the Nigerian economy. In this connection, the work will also look at the gains that has been recorded since the introduction of this vision of Udenwa administration.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope covers the process of formulating and implementing government policies in Nigeria. Of particular concern to us will be on how the perceptions, values and leadership styles of public policy makers affects the process of public policy making. For the purpose of streamlining, the scope of this work will specifically be on the key actors in public policy making process. On the part of limitation, it is pertinent for the researcher to reveal certain problems encountered in the course of writing the project. First is the issue of time, the time frame given for the research work was not enough to adequately carry out an in-dept study due to tight schedules, academic programmes etc.
Next, it was certainly not easy for the researcher to get certain vital information from some personalities because some declined accepting questionnaires and some never returned questionnaires sent to them. Finally, financial constraint was also a limitation encountered by the researcher. The researcher has to put up with travelling long distances in search of information and also the high cost of transportation.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will assist to bring to the fore, the complex and inter-locking power, influence and relationships that determines and shapes public policy making. Through this study, appropriate strategies for dealing with the contemporary problems of Nigeria will be known. And also from the knowledge derived from this work, government will be able to pursue development goals that will enhance the living condition of the people.
On the other hand, it is expected that a comprehensive review of laws governing policy implementation and the technicalities involved, will bring ecological sustainability, equity and participation in addition to raising the standard of living of Nigerians. This work will also be useful to policy makers, implementers, government and the general public etc. Finally, by focusing our analysis on specific periods and individuals, it is expected that this work will expose the situation factors that influences and shapes the nation public policy making process.
1.6 THEORITICAL FRAME WORK
The theoretical frame work of this work is based on the postulation of system theory. The system theory originated from David Easton who analysed politics from the perspective of systems. This theory sees policy as an output of the political system. The output itself is conceived as the result of various environmental variable acted upon by the political system. The theory conceives political activity as essentially involving the environment, the political system and output. The environment consist of the objective, conditions and forces that generates demands and support inputs. Support consist of adherence to laws or positive orientations which promotes the political system such as loyalty and patriotism. Demands are the articulated needs, problems and aspirations which are brought to bear upon the political system. The political system consist of the institutions, processes and personnel of government. The political system acts as the processor of input into output, which are authoritative allocations of values. The authoritative allocations of output are the public policies. Public policies are therefore the reaction of the political system to environmental demands and pressures. The system theory has the advantage of insight into the totality of the policy process and into the interactions between the components parts.
1.7 STATEMENTS OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis shall be tested.
Ho: The tripod vision of Udenwa was not fully actualized due to poor implementation.
Hi: The tripod vision of Udenwa was fully implemented.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
POLICY FORMULATION: According to Ikelegbe, policy formulation is the development of relevant policy in relation to public problem and the proposition, consideration and enactment of the policy.
POLICY: According to Robert and Edwards, policy is defined as a set of decisions taken by a political actor to a specified situation.
POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: According to Okereke, policy implementation are those activities that are directed towards putting programmes to the necessary personnel, logistic support and funds, which will enhance the actualization of the policy objectives.