IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION THAT NURSING STUDENTS ACCESS IN RELATION TO HIV AND AIDS
HIV and AIDS Human Immuno Deficiency virus and Acquired Immuno deficiency syndrome respectively is one of the most devastating worldwide public health problem in recent history. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 2006, 942,000 people in the United States had been diagnosed with Aids since the disease was identified in 1981. Ijezie, (2012) stated that HIV and AIDS are called pandemic instead of epidemic because no country has escaped. It is not known where it started. It poses a great danger to the full realization of the potentials of all humankind. It affects our religious, social, cultural, economic and political development and a threat to global peace, security and order. World Health Organization, (WHO) (2016) stated that the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system destroying or impairing their function. Infection with the virus results to progressive deterioration of the immune system, leading to “Immune deficiency”. The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfill its roles of fighting infection and diseases. Infection associated with severe immune deficiency is known as “opportunistic infection”, because they take advantage of weekend immune system. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a term which applies to the most advanced stage of HIV infection. Christian, (2017) stated thus, AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus).The diseases i.e. HIV alters the immune system making people more vulnerable to infection and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the syndrome progresses. HIV is found throughout all the tissue of body fluid (semen, vaginal fluid, blood and breast milk) of an effected person.
1.1 Background to the Study
One of the most dreaded killer diseases in the world today is the Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, otherwise known as HIV/AIDS. It is also the greatest challenge that national and international health workers, organizations, government and civil societies face in the battle to provide treatment to an ever-expanding infected population, especially, in the developing world. The world has spent a lot (in cash and in kind) tackling issues of prevention, stigma, drugs, infrastructure, human resources and cost of treatment for HIV/AIDS. These efforts all combine to account for the challenges and obstacles in tackling this viral disease.
Against the backdrop of other chronic health problems in Nigeria, many of which still continue to provoke high morbidity and mortality, AIDS has assumed a visibility rarely seen in respect of many health issues. Thus, averting a possible pandemic with its attendant sudden adverse consequences of economic and social destabilization is a major concern. AIDS has become the public health problem that has touched every nook and cranny of the world. It is one of the killer diseases of public health importance that threatened the supposed target year 2010 for improved health related conditions and health status. Weise (1997) described AIDS as one of the pandemics of the late 20th century.
Knowledge in relation to HIV/AIDS is the focus of this study. However, the study emphasizes on the identification of the sources of information related to HIV aids that is utilized by nurses. Previous studies showed that groups and organizations involved in combating HIV/AIDS tended to lay emphasis on treatment rather than making public means of getting necessary information on the virus. The targeted society in this study is Uyo which is a town in the Akwa Ibom state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, if there is an HIV/AIDS free generation, everybody will have the opportunity to go about his or her normal business, thereby, making the economy a viable and sustainable one. However, a nation that is sick and plagued with the scourge of HIV/AIDS may not experience economic prosperity because HIV/AIDS carries along with it a lot of politico-socio-economic consequences. A brief consideration of the happenings in society would reveal that nurses are by far the most informed people on the topic of HIV/AIDS. This reason necessitated the study on identification of sources of information that nursing students access in relation to HIV and AIDS.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In carrying out this research the following objectives were set:
- to ascertain the source of information of HIV/AIDS among nursing students.
- to identify the source of information on the behaviour that leads to high risk of HIV/AIDS infection among nursing students in Uyo Metropolis.
- to ascertain the source of information on the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among nursing students in Uyo Metropolis.
- to identify the source of information of preventive measures used in reducing HIV/AIDS among nursing students in Uyo Metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the investigation.
- What is the source of information of HIV/AIDS among nursing students in Uyo?
- What is the source of information of HIV/AIDS among nursing students in Uyo Metropolis on the behaviours that lead to high risk of HIV/AIDS infections?
- What is the source of information of HIV/AIDS among nursing students in Uyo Metropolis on the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS?
- What is the source of information of HIV/AIDS among nursing students in Uyo Metropolis on the preventive measures to be used to reduce HIV/AIDS infection?
1.5 Basic Assumptions
This study is based on the following assumptions:
- The nursing students will be fully aware of the implications of HIV/AIDS infection.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The information gathered will be useful to nursing students as well as lecturers, healthcare providers in schools and colleges, health educators and social workers. The findings will help the nursing students, health workers and social workers to come up with strategies through which they can combat the disease through health promotion and education.
The findings derived from this study will be of tremendous help to the state and local government officials in providing appropriate seminars and conferences for health workers and take counseling measures to be used for people living with HIV/AIDS.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study was restricted to nursing students in nursing schools in Uyo metropolis. The population used included both male and female nursing students in nursing school within Uyo metropolis.
1.8 Definition of terms
HIV: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases.
AIDS: A disease in which there is a severe loss of the body’s cellular immunity, greatly lowering the resistance to infection and malignancy.
SOURCE: A place, person, or thing from which something originates or can be obtained.