IMPACT OF MOTIVATION OF TEACHERS ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SCHOOLS IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
This study examined the impact of teacher motivation on academic performance of students. It proceeded by defining teacher motivation as a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces initiated for teachers, in order to induce them to act in desirable academically productive manner. On the other hands, it considered academic performance as the outcome of education; it constitutes the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Determinants of teacher-learner interactions for better students’ academic performance were found to include: the status of teachers, class size, increasing workload, professional freedom, the work environment, teacher education and professional development, teachers’ salaries and negotiations and consultations. Impacts of teacher motivation on the academic performance of students include amongst others. Teacher motivation provides the desire in students to learn. This is because learners are encouraged to learn, to express themselves through answering questions, taking part in both individual and group assignments; and getting involved or committed in the learning process by acquiring ideas, skills and concepts for total development. Finally, it was recommended amongst others that teacher should be paid salaries comparable with other professions requiring a similar level of qualifications and responsibility, making it possible for them to live with dignity on the salary from their work and not be forced to take on additional jobs.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education is largely a matter of a learning process that involves interactions between teacher and learner. When this process works well, real learning takes place. In the past, academic performance was often measured more by ear than today. Teachers’ observations made up the bulk of the assessment and today’s summation, or numerical, method of determining how well a student is performing is a fairly recent invention. Grading systems came into existence in the United States in the late Victorian period and were initially criticized due to high subjectivity. Different teachers valued different aspects of learning more highly than others, and although some standardization was attempted in order to make the system fairer, the problem continued. Today, changes have been made to incorporate differentiation for individual students’ abilities, and exploration of alternate methods of measuring performance is ongoing. The tracking of academic performance fulfills a number of purposes. Areas of achievement and failure in a student’s academic career need to be evaluated in order to foster improvement and make full use of the learning process. Results provide a framework for talking about how students fare in school and a constant standard to which all students are held. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious, minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of every grade. Performance in school is evaluated in a number of ways. For regular grading, students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral tests, performing presentations, turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions.
Teachers evaluate in the form of letter or number grades and side notes, to describe how well a student has done. At the state level, students are evaluated by their performance on standardized tests geared toward specific ages. Many people emphasize the importance of good teachers, and some policies are designed to promote teacher quality. Research using student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some teachers are more effective than others and also reveals that being taught by an effective teacher has important consequences for student achievement and based on a set of achievements students in each age group are expected to meet. Many factors contribute to a student’s academic performance, including individual characteristics and family and neighborhood experiences. But research suggests that, among school-related factors, teachers matter most. When it comes to student performance on tests, a teacher is estimated to have two to three times the impact of any other school factor, including services, facilities, and even leadership. Teachers at all levels of the education system should be adequately trained, respected, remunerated, and able to participate in decisions affecting their professional lives and teaching environments. When teachers are enabled to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively. A well-motivated teacher always completes the tasks set for him, even when such tasks or assignments are difficult or seem uninteresting
Motivation involves a number of psychological factors that start and maintain activities towards the achievements of personal goals and refers to reasons that underlie behaviour that is characterized by willingness and volition. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behavior towards subjects matter, Ormord (2003). Motivation of teachers and students in the teaching and learning process can direct behavior towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy, enhances cognitive processing, increases imitation of and persistence in activities, determines what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance. Orphlims (2002) is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job and, as a result, they are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determined to give their best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is generally assumed that motivation influences people’s attitude and performance at work. Teacher motivation is directly linked to the instructors’ desire to take part in the pedagogical process and interest in sharing their knowledge with the students. It determines their involvement or no-involvement in the teaching activities. Teachers put educational philosophy and objective into the knowledge they transfer to their students. Teachers are the most important factor in a generation’s education process, so it is important that they perform to the best of their abilities in the educational activity. Each country’s authorities must pay attention to the factor that affect teachers’ performance which has a direct effect on students’ performance.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of motivation on teachers’ performance in the school system. The study specifically tends to:
i. Find the extent to which government pays salaries as at when due to the teachers.
ii. Find out the extent to which promotion of teachers at and when due influences teachers performance.
iii. Find out the extent which such programs like seminars, conference and workshops that are conducted for the teachers can enhance their performance in the class.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hope that the final result of this research work will help in finding possible ways in which motivation can influence productivity/ performance in teaching and learning process and also improve learning on the part of students. It is important for the researcher to put into consideration, the significance of teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students. However, this research will be significant in the following ways:
i. When teachers are being motivated, the society/ government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best, the students will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of its citizens.
ii. Parents will also benefit when teachers are being motivated in the sense that the students will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out family responsibilities.
iii. Students will benefit equally when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them to enhance and improve their performance.
iv. The teachers also benefit a lot when positive motivation is given to them in terms of promotion, fringe benefit, salaries are paid at and when due, they will give in their best in the teaching process. And also their standard of living will improve.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study covers some selected secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area; and is limited to finding the effect of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. To what extent does irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect teachers’ performance on their work?
2. To what extent do seminars, conferences and workshops for teachers influence teachers’ performance?
3. To what extent does inadequate promotion of teachers affect teachers’ performance in the classroom?
4. To what extent does negligence of teachers’ welfare affect teachers’ performance in the classroom?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: There is a significant relationship between teacher’s motivation and their job performance.
H2: There is a significant difference between public and private school teacher’s performance.
H3: There is a significant difference in motivation in both public and private school teachers
H4: There are differences in motivation and performance across individual demographics.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The following problems limited the extent to which the researcher to have gone in carrying out the research.
Inadequate financial resources affected the study; hence the sample size was small.
Limited time available to the researcher also influence the research. This was because; the research was carried out during the school academic program.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
TEACHER: A person whose job is teaching, impact knowledge in an individual.
STUDENT: A Person who is studying in school.
PERFORMANCE: How well or badly you do something.
MOTIVATE: A reason why somebody does something or behaves in a particular way.
CLASSROOM: A room where a class of children or students is taught.
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: This deals with making headway in school.
SCHOOL: A place where learners are educated.