IMPACT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT, SUPERVISION AND JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEES PRODUTIVITY
Job satisfaction is an attitude variable that reflects how people feel about their jobs overall as well as various aspects of them. There are basic important dimensions to job satisfaction. The objective of this study is to understand the ways in which individuals seek to satisfy their needs or drives, and the consequences of the satisfactions or dissatisfaction of such individuals needs in an organization. Questionnaire and a structured interview was used for data collection, the respondents were chosen randomly. Two hypotheses were formulated and analysed based on the data gathered from the questionnaire. The findings of this research shows that work environment plays a vital role in an organization and greatly affect work output of employees. In conclusion, recommendations and suggestions were made to know how the management can improve privacy, seat arrangement, office structure, work environment and supervisory style to make workers more satisfied with their jobs and perhaps increase their morale for better performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It cannot be over-emphasized that human behaviour is influenced by his environment though which invariably reflects on work performance which have being observed that job satisfaction influence an individual behaviour including his environment through which productivity is achieved. Thus individual’s attitude must be checked concerning means of production as a major watch word which must be well managed, ascertaining and diagnosing their needs being pro-active in creating a favourable working conditions within and outside work place that will positively boost their morale to higher performance because the social life of an employee constitutes his or her working life. (Shabi.2002) and not limited to monetary factor alone.
Therefore, the link and clue to job satisfaction towards higher production is through effective and harmonious management of human behaviour in an organization. The fact that man is one of the major factor of production is a product of “nature and nurture” (Idowu.2002) i.e. Work environment + SUPERVISION + Job satisfaction + = HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY. Work environment implies what constitutes good working condition within and outside the workplace. Supervision implies continuous implementation and monitoring of management programme of needs. Job satisfaction implies effective harmonizing of human behaviour.WORK ENVIROMENT Higher Productivity Supervision Job Satisfaction Dr. Dauda 2005.
The key to job satisfaction is in an individual attitude, for many of us, the idea of having a job that is truly satisfying i.e. the kind of environment in which work doesn’t feel like work anymore is pure fantasy. Professional athletes, ski patrollers and golf pros may have found a way of doing what they love and getting paid for it. However, job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his/her job. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation or aptitude. Although it is clearly linked. Job design aims at enhancing job satisfaction and performance by increasing productivity in a conducive environment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In the past, environmental conditions in the workplace. Illuminations, ventilation, humility, temperature, sitting arrangement, office structure and a host of other environmental variables have all been seen from the angle of the engineering,. Although the technical problem of achieving desired result is simple aside the psychological problem of what condition suits the employees.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study would like to look at the contribution of the physical work environment and supervisory style on job satisfaction. The physical work environment must be defined as the setting of the workplace. Also, the study would also look at how supervision and management create a healthy work environment.
The purpose of the study are in these folds:-
1. To see the extent to which the physical work environment especially open-office structure that are now taking over from the conventional private office ,the amount of privacy offered by this kind of office structure, noise, amount of social interaction permitted by the structure and the contribution of these and other factors to job satisfaction.
2. To examine supervisory style and its impact on employees job satisfaction and the extent to which freedom of action and job execution facilitates or influence employee’s job satisfaction.
3. To analyse the combined effects of these two factors above on Job satisfaction and recommend ways of improving those factors so as to make employees more satisfied with their job with their job probably increasing their job performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following are the research questions that would be asked during research process.
1). How can an employee be satisfied with his job?
2). what are the necessary factors for job satisfaction?
3). Under what condition will an employee be satisfied with his job?
4.) Can motivation and productivity enhance the level at which employees in an organization can attain job satisfaction?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses are tentatively stated and will be tested for the purpose of this research.
Ho: Workers in private office do not experience more job satisfaction than those in open offices
H1: Workers in private office experience more job satisfaction than those in open offices
Ho: Private office is not a status symbol
H1: Private office is a status symbol
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Organizational behaviour could either bring about job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The motivation- hygiene theory offer explanations to what motivates and satisfies individual as well as what dissatisfies or does not motivate them Bankole (2003). Some variables are considered to be dependent on job satisfaction, which are:-
1. Job satisfaction and job performance.
2. Job satisfaction and staff turnover.
3. Job satisfaction and absence.
The relationship between Job satisfaction and performance is the main aim of the organisation. The predictive nature of these studies gives a conclusion that dissatisfaction is a factor that leads to employee’s turnover. For an individual organization, the consequences of job satisfaction are extremely important by discovering the attitudes of workers on factors that are job related. An organization can benefit materially if it knows what factors contribute to satisfaction instead of wasting money on incentives that are not appreciated by workers. After finding out to what extent the physical work environment and supervisory style contributes to employees job satisfaction, this study proceeds to find means of increasing this contributions. Finally, this study could be useful to other student and managers who are interested in the study of job satisfaction.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study focuses on the managerial operation and marketing staff of ACCION MICROFINANCE BANK LIMITED LAGOS. This organization was chosen because of the peculiarity of its office structures. The offices in this organization are partitioned with plain glass, workers sits side by side with their supervisor or in offices where the supervisor can see them from his office. The respondents that were chosen have different jobs, functions and status ranging from minor to major ones. They also work in varied environment which includes private offices to non- private offices occupied by an average of three to five workers.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of this study, the following terms would be defined as follows:-
* WORK ENVIROMENT: – This can be defined or identified as the place where one work. It could be in an office building, at home from the kitchen, from the car, at a constitution site etc. But here, we are talking about “ healthy work environment”- which can point to other factors in the work environment such as co-workers, air quality, ergonomic seating management, child care, parking and noise.
* SUPERVISION: – This can simply be described as an act or process by which a superior officer in an organization directs the work of his subordinates by giving instructions on task to be performed in the work environment.
* JOB SATISFACTION:- This refers to the contentment experienced by individual worker when desire is attained on the job. It involves the outcome already experienced as opposed to motivation which implies a drive towards an outcome .Bankole( 2003)
* PRIVATE OFFICE:-This is an office occupied by only one person and is partitioned by walls or any other non-transparent material.
* OPEN OFFICE: – This is an office occupied by one, two or more persons and has plain glass partitioned.