Format: MS WORD |  Chapter: 1-5 |  Pages: 65-80 





1.1       Background of the Study

The developed world has realized the invaluable contribution of education to the development of nations. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) recommendation on the status of teachers as far back as 1966 is an eloquent attestation to this recognition. In this regard, Ogundele [2000] observed that no nation rises above the level of its education and no educational system outgrows the quality and status of its teachers and no nation can afford to pay lip service to the education of its people. The nation which fails to realize this importance of education, does so at his own peril. This assertion attempts to correct the erroneous impression that teachers’ rewards are in heaven. This is supported by section 9 No. 59 of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy on Education [2004] that states: “teachers education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers”.

The section also added that all teachers in our educational institutions from pre-primary to university will be trained. This has led to the elimination of uncertified teachers from classroom in Isin Local Government Area and Kwara State as a whole.

The school can change the society for better through the agency of the teachers, but the society has to first empower the teacher and enrich the climate of the school.

Oyeniyan [2000] was of the opinion that education is a good enterprise and the future of the world is pivoted on its gains. Information, enlightenment, technology, transportation, which are pleasantly shrinking the whole world into a global village with regard to contact, interaction and communication are all products of education. Hence, the ultimate goal of any nation is to produce good quality education in terms of learning and character. The importance of welfare scheme on teachers’ job performance is greatly being felt all over the world.

As Locke and Latham [2004] theory opined that a satisfied worker will produce more and use this as a basis for relating motivation, satisfaction and job performance. The need to motivate workers is a fundamental issue in all organizations that are aimed at achieving set goals. Teachers like workers in other organizations, need the renewed energy brought by incentive from time to time if they are to perform effectively.

The Nigerian Union of Teachers’ constitution stated that the Union is a forum for the cooperation of teachers and promotion of their welfare, the interest of education versus teaching profession. Achimugu [2005] study revealed that motivation played a significant role in teachers’ job performance. Akor [2010] and Jabuya [2010] posited that significant relationship exist between motivation and teachers job performance. Adeogun [2006] in his survey research on training and experience as predictors to teachers productivity in secondary schools in Nigeria discovered that training and experience had significant impact on teachers’ job performance. The outcome of this research agreed with Ahiaba [2002] that training and experience enhance teachers’ productivity.

Luthans [2005] posited that welfare schemes are the strategies employed in motivating teachers for better job performance. These are in form of salary increment, gratuity, regular promotion, ensuring job security, and establishing cordial relationship among teachers. Verspoor [2004] found that teachers are the initiators, facilitators of teaching and learning activities. They act as agent of changes in any school system because of these roles they perform; they can be regarded as the heart of quality improvement strategy. Emenike (2003) affirmed that the Nigerian society still rate teaching as the lowest civil service job. Furthermore, while other teachers work in order to satisfy their needs in life, others are constantly agitate to a need for one thing or the other, which is a sign of lack of job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction is one of the most frequently investigated variable in studies in organizational behaviour. This is probably due to its positive impact on organizational effectiveness and efficiency (Obi, 1992). Obi (1997), also stressed that teachers’ effectiveness lead to opportunities to produce and effect changes in the school among teacher in secondary schools. Despite teachers’ efforts in school effectiveness and efficiency, they neither get a commensurate remuneration nor the prestige and social status, which they deserve. This implies that teachers who work tirelessly for the development of the school through grooming of the students are not accorded the necessary recognition and respect which these teachers deserve. This also influences their job satisfaction and in the long run goes a long way to affect teaching and learning. In search of job satisfaction, workers are usually inclined to leave the job at hand for better ones. Okonkwo (1997) stated that teachers who are not satisfied with their jobs, withdraw to other jobs which they believe might satisfy their needs. Since job satisfaction from the basis for worker’ decisions about their work- whether they remain or quit, the parameter, for measuring teachers’ job satisfaction in the teaching profession could be in their length of service. Maintaining a high level of worker’s job satisfaction is vital in increasing organizational productivity.

Job satisfaction is an acceptable and happy work condition. Emenike (2003), defined it as a pleasurable, emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job, an affective to ones job and an attitude towards one’s job. Operationally, job satisfaction is being happy and contented with ones (teachers) duties and showing same in being devoted to the duties. It is necessary to ensure teachers’ job satisfaction as this will enhance productivity and teachers’ longer stay in the teaching profession. This implies that job satisfaction is imperative for the achievement of educational goals.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

 Teachers generally seem to be discontented with their teaching jobs and this invariably affects the entire educational system especially secondary schools that provide inputs to higher institutions. The poor standard of education in the country is therefore not unconnected with this problem.

Inadequate motivation of teachers in the state and subsequent lack of job satisfaction make them less committed to their work. Consequently they are not well motivated and do not dedicate their time to proper teaching of students nor prepare their lessons well enough to inculcate all necessary skills using adequate methods. Thus their contributions to the accomplishment of school goals are not very positive. They fail to participate in the projects that promote the tone of the name of the school. Equally, students do not do well in their examinations since they do not acquire correct skills. This results in poor output and consequently job dissatisfaction which is apparent in several forms of misconduct on the part of the teachers.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The study sought to know the impact of teachers’ welfare package on teachers’ job satisfaction. Specifically, the study sought to;

  1. examine the extent to which teachers’ welfare packages influence job satisfaction.
  2. determine the relationship between teachers’ welfare packages and student academic performance.

iii.   identify the causes of teachers’ job dissatisfaction in Nigeria.

1.4       Research Questions

  1. To what extent do teachers’ welfare packages influence job satisfaction?
  2. What is the relationship between teachers’ welfare packages and student academic performance?

iii.   What are the causes of teachers’ job dissatisfaction in Nigeria?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1: Teachers’ welfare packages do not influence job satisfaction to a great extent

Ho2: There is no relationship between teachers’ welfare packages and student academic performance.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.7       Scope/Limitations of the Study

This study is on the impact of teachers’ welfare packages on teachers’ job satisfaction.

Limitations of study

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8       Definition of Terms

Teacher: teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.

Teachers’ welfare : Teachers’ welfare means taking care of the teachers by the government, private employers, non-governmental organizations, parents, school administrators and the teachers’ trade union directly and indirectly through provision of housing, meals, payment of allowances, construction of classrooms, guidance and counselling, provision of loans, and provision of instructional materials (Goldman, 1999; Rajkuar, 2014; Odeku & Odeku, 2014).

Welfare Packages: Armstrong and rumples define it as items in the total package offered of employee over and above salary which increases their wealth or well-being at some cost to the employee.

Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is a measure of workers’ contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.


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Adeogun, A. A. (2006) Training and Experience as Predictors of Teacher’s Productivity in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Management.4, 38 – 49.

Ahiaba, K.P ( 2002) Training and experience as Correlate of Teachers Productivity in Secondary Schools in Ojo Local Education District of Lagos State. A PGDE Project, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Akor, P.U (2010) Motivation as a Correlate to Job Performance of Professional Librarians in the University Libraries in Makurdi, Benue State. UNIZIK Journal of Research in Library and Information Sciences. 2(1):54 – 64.

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Emenike, O. (2003). Educational management. theory and practice. Jamoe Enterprises (Nig.). Abakpa-Nike, Enugu.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education (Revised): Lagos NERC.

Jabuya, M.A(2010) Influence of Motivation on Teachers’ Performance in Secondary Schools in Uriri District Nyanza Province, Kenya.An Unpublished MA Thesis, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Locke, E.A and G.P. Latham (2004) What should we do about Motivation theory? Six Recommendations for the Twenty – First Century. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 29(3) 388 – 403.

Luthans, F (2005) Organisation Behaviour (10th Edition). Boston: Mc Graw Hill/Irwin.

Obi, E. (1997). Communication and the management of organizational behaviour. In Ndu, A., Ocho, L. O. Okeke, B.S. (eds.) Dynamics of educational administration and management. The Nigeria perspective

Obi, E. (1997). Motivation and organizational behaviour. In Ndu A., Ocho, L. O. & Okeke, B.S. (eds.) Dynamics of educational administration and management – the Nigerian perspective Awka Maks Publishers Ltd.