MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WELL WATER SOURCE

MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WELL WATER SOURCE

ABSTRACT

The microbiological examination of underground water source (well water) at campus 111 of I.M.T Enugu was carried out by using ten samples of water. The  presence of coliform groups and Escherichia coli were examined using presumptive coliform test, confirmatory and complete test techniques. Presumptive tests was carried out on different water samples for microbial analysis. The result indicated presence of some micro-organisms which I further confirmed by confirmatory and complete tests. At the end of the analysis Escherichiai coli, Cytobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were identified and isolated. Finally, it was concluded that the well water analyzed for microbial quality indicated positive.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

The amount of ground water varies considerably from place to place and is obviously greater where the surface rock is porous such as limestone and chalk than it is in areas of non-porous or impermeable rock such as clay. Ground water is responsible for the formation of spring and under ground.

Under ground water is stored water below ground, formed by rainfall. It can be obtained by digging a hole through the earth surface until the water table is reached. It must be sunk to the depth of the permanent water table, if a constant supply of water is to be obtained (Allen 2005).

The water table falls during dry seasons but will not fall to dryness. And if it is deep enough it remains on the saturated zone. There are two types of well water, they are: the shallow/surface well water and deep well water. Water from deep wells tends to be less polluted than that from surface/shallow well (World Health Statistics 2002).

Regarding Letrotal 2000, ground water is used for several purposes such as washing, cooking, food processing and among others. Out of these used drinking of water seems to be the sensitive as it could have a direct deleterious impact on health of human beings. Therefore, drinking water should be potable, and free from toxic substances.

Water is portable when it is colourless odourless, tasteless and free from bacteria. A few substances that are health hazards do occur in water; and can cause illness. From microbiological point of view, the pathogens most frequently transmitted through water are Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi etc which causes infection in the intestinal track like dysentery, cholera and typhoid fever etc. (Thekoronye et al, 2002).

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2002) have standard for potable water of which coliforms should be absent and total plate consist of bacterial growth should be 100CFU/ml of water.

1.1      AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To isolate bacterial that contaminates underground water.

To determine the microbial load of underground water source.

To determine if there is faecal contamination of underground water source.

To determine the Microbiological safety of underground water (well-water) at Campus III, Institute of management and technology (IMT), Enugu.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        There is scarcity of potable water in Enugu Metropolis. And this has made individual and organizations to resort to underground water source. So, this prompted the idea to ascertain the microbiological safety of the underground water source at Campus III of Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, now in use by the students living in Campus III hostels.

1.3      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

        This project is limited to the microbiological examination of underground water source at Campus III, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu.

1.4      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study of this research topic will provide more constructor framework on the incidence of water-borne diseases. It will help students at Campus II of IMT provide precautionary measures that will help in preventing water-borne infections. Also, it will help to reduce the high rate of water-borne disease occurrence. The result of this research work will reveal the safety of underground water at Campus III since majority of the students have resorted to using well water.

1.5      LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1)Time: Due to time constraint, Campus III as a case study was chosen in other to achieve a meaningful result under stipulated time.

2)Finance: It is the most important aspect of every reseach work. The research work was restricted to Campus III only in other to cope with the expenditure of transportation.

3)Microbiological Examination of water source was restricted to Campus III of IMT alone to avoid making the work tedious or laborious.