MOTIVATION AS A MEANS OF ENHANCING STAFF PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION
The task of motivation, the work force of an organization is to achieve maximum productivity. This is one of the most challenging functions of management. It deals with human behaviour. The manager needs some understanding about why people behave the way they do, so that they influence people to work hard the way the organization finds it desirable. Motivation is a voluntary willingness of an employee to render services without bribery or compulsion. That is, motivation is out of sheer of the employee and the will to perform is sustained continuously. This study focuses on the effect of motivation on job performance. Three hypotheses were put forward and tested using the chi square method, all tested positive giving the notion that incentives or motivation are important. The methodology used in the research is both descriptive and historical. Also empirical analysis is employed and the sources of information are primary and secondary based i.e. information gathered from questionnaire, seminar papers, speeches and addresses by eminent scholars, textbooks and leaned journals. After a thorough evaluation of Motivation as a Means of Enhancing Staff Performance in an Organization, it was discovered that incentives are important to enable employee put in their best and make them achieve in their output. Finally, based on my findings, recommendations were put forward to aid management to properly implement motivational scheme.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The term motivation is at the very heart of the study of work organizations. It is of great concern to both management and workers in the organization. Motivation has been one of the most intensively planned issues in human resources management. The major preoccupation of man has been work, which is central feature of modem society. It occupies a greater percentage of the overall time available to most people for major part of their lives and the economic rewards obtained from it determines an individual’s standard of living.
The concept of motivation developed from the management orientation perspective classical management thoughts, the human relations’ school and the human resources perspective which emphasized the need to get the best and optimal performance from employees, while classical management school has concentrated much on the extrinsic needs like salary increase and promotion, the human relation school and human resources perspective laid greater emphasis on social needs, like need for recognition and acceptance within the work place.
There are two ways through which employees can be motivated. One is the positive approach while the other is negative approach. Human beings are said to be motivated positively when they are shown a reward and how to achieve it, such rewards may be monetary or non-monetary. Monetary rewards may come in form of different incentive wages plans and production bonus schemes. Non-financial rewards include praise for an achievement, participation in management recognition. The issue of maximum human performance is of crucial importance in every society, of all the current concerns of business. However, some factors are responsible for this study. The situation in Nigeria is of low workers morale, poor economy, negative attitude to work calls for a study which examines the effect of motivation and job performance.
1.2 STATEMANT OF RESERCH PROBLEM
The relevance of any motivational method depends on its ability to meet not only the needs of the workers but also that of the organization. Thus, in every organization, there is the need to influence the amount view to increasing their performance, which is the central focus of any employer. These include the following problems:
Ø High labour turnover
Ø Industrial accident
Ø Low productivity
Sometimes the method of administration is where the fault lies. Consequently, efficiency is affected. However, personnel managers, industrial financiers find this disturbing. Explanation for this is that every society is in a state of dynamics, things changing from time to time. This applies to attitude, culture and work ethics in general. Thus the entire problems of job performance satisfaction have turned out to be more complex than was originally the case. The issue of motivating workers in all organizations both in private as well as in the public is vital and it deserves critical attention.
In the country’s bid to achieve economic growth and rapid development, it has emphasized the use of or reliance on her own natural resources (of which labour is inclusive) as demonstrated by the following paragraph in the second national development plan. The changing pattern of the world economy and the increasing concentration of the world’s economic and political power pose a great challenge for Africa, which Nigeria cannot ignore. Nigeria will therefore, quicken its pace of development through the use of her own natural resources.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to examine the effect of staff motivation on job performance in Guaranty Trust Bank PIc.
The strategies used to motivate workers which contribute to its existence and consistent growth and also provide an insight on how motivation could enhance job performance in general,
Other objectives are:
1. To examine the motivational factors processes and structure of this enterprise.
2. To study motivational trends of the bank with regards to productivity.
3. To offer general useful suggestions towards improving performance situation in the enterprise and by extension in the banking industry.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Ø Is it desirable to motivate staff?
Ø What are the effects of motivation on employee’s performance?
Ø Does motivation have any effect on human behaviour?
Ø Do employees see reward as consequent to performance?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses have been formulated for testing.
1. Hi That motivation increases job performance in (GTB PIc)
Ho That motivation does not increase job performance in (GBT PIc)
2. Hi That promotional opportunity is one of the important strategy for motivating and increasing job performance.
Ho That promotional opportunity is not one of the important strategies for motivating and increasing job performance.
3. Hi That demotivated employees are prone to industrial accident
Ho That demotivated employees are not prone to industrial accident
4. Hi That there is a positive relationship between motivation and labour turnover
Ho That there IS no relationship between motivation and labour turnover.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of this study can be viewed from two major stand points: – practical and academic.
Practical- This study will assist in broadening the understanding of the following:
a. Exposing further the relationship that exists between our relevant variables which will be of interest to respective management team of enterprise?
b. To economic watchers and interested publics, it will provide some insight into the motivation behaviour in one of Nigeria’s biggest banking industry concerns.
c. To the bank under study, it will expose to a large extent, what goes on in the organization with regard to our relevant variable and a comparative analysis of their action over a period of years.
a. It will help to contribute in enriching the literature on motivation
b. It will throw more light on the relationship between labour and management and such other variables apart from pay such as working conditions in the manufacturing industry.
c. It will serve as a body of reserved knowledge to be regarded to by researchers.
1. 7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study investigates the effect of staff motivation and job performance in Guaranty Trust Bank PIc. It will also examine the various ways of motivating employee in an organization thereby achieving customers delight and efficient service delivery. Also special reference to factors such as money, promotion, incentives, participation, job enrichment that could enhance job performance shall be examined. Generally, in carrying out this exercise, it requires covering all the network branches of Guaranty Trust Bank PIc. However, due to some factors or shortcomings such as problem of time to collect as much data as would have been necessary distances to be covered to collect useful related books, journals and of course finance to enable this researcher travel, collect and analyze the data that would be found covering all the network branches of Guaranty Trust Bank PIc may not be necessary. More so, the research has been limited to Guaranty Trust Bank PIc Headquarter, Lagos due to the fact that the same policies and style of motivation exist in all the branches. Notwithstanding of the above limitations, this research will achieve its purpose.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
As would be found common to academic research studies like this, this work would not lay claim to a complete or an exclusive exhaustion of the given topic. It is however, a summation and an addition to any academic discussion on the study of staff motivation and job performance, using Guaranty Trust Bank PIc as a case study. Any research endeavour of this nature is therefore usually plague by problems of time to collect as much data as would have been necessary, distances to be covered to collect useful materials, and of course finance to enable the researcher travel, collect and analyze the data that would be found. There is also personnel limitation, which is often caused by respondents being skeptical their and refusal to cooperate until the researcher takes time to explain the focus of the research on individual basis.
1.9 DEFINTION OF TERMS
Motivation:– It is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some need or expectation. Human motivation studies in essence, is to discover what triggers and sustain human behaviour in a working environment.
Staff Performance: -The ability of the employees or labour force to perform a work or role before an audience
Enhancing– To make greater, as in value, beauty, or effectiveness; augment.
Labour – Turnovers- The number of workers hired by an establishment to replace those who have left in a given period of time.
Industrial Accidents– An industrial unexpected and undesirable event, especially one resulting in damage or harm. e.g. heavy machines accident.
Ajila, C.O. (1996) “Job Motivation and Attitude to Productivity among Workers in Manufacturing Companies”. In Lagos State, Nigeria.
Akarele, A. (1991). “The Role of Labour in Productivity.” Nigeria Journal ofIndustrial Relations, 5, (December) 50 – 58.
Alderfer, C. (1972). Existence, Relatedness and Growth. Human Needs 10Organizational Settings. (New York Free Press).
Assam, A.p. (1964). “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”. (Unpublished) M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
Bereleson, B. (1964) Human Behaviour: An Inventory of Scientific Findings.(New York: Mc Graw Hill)
Campbell, J.B. (1970): Managerial Behaviour, Performance and Effectiveness. (New York: McGraw Hill)