OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AS DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY
The study examined occupational health and safety as determinants of employees’ productivity, using NESTLE NIGERIA PLC, Agbara office as a case study. The study employed descriptive survey research method as the research design. A sample size of 220 respondents was selected applying purposive sampling method. Questionnaire was the major instrument used to collect data, the reliability co-efficient of the instrument was 0.86. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected analyzed using percentage, frequency distribution tables and chi-square inferential statistics. The findings showed that there is significant relationship between occupational health and employees’ productivity. Also, it was revealed that there exists no significant relationship between occupational safety and employees’ productivity. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others things that employees should provide adequate health facilities in their factories. Also, employees are encouraged to comply with health and safety rules at workplace and that government on her part should endeavour to enforce labour laws concerning health and safety of workers. Key words: Occupational Health, Occupational Safety, Employees’ Productivity, Manufacturing Sector.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Labour is one of the vital resources required for high level productivity at both organizational and national level. Without labour, other factors of production like capital, machines and land may remain passive. This is so because it is labour that put other factors into effective use. Perhaps, this explains why labour is often held responsible for whatever goes wrong in the production process. Suffice it to say that without efficient labour, high level productivity particularly in the manufacturing sector may be elusive. It however requires a sound health and well safeguarded working environment to have an effective and efficient workforce that is highly productive and capable of accomplishing the corporate goals of organization.
In view of the central and critical role played by labour in the economic growth and survival of organizations. It becomes imperative for employer of labour especially in the organized private sector to ensure that the health and safety of their employees are given adequate attention. It is however noteworthy that in Nigeria industrial relations practice, emphasis is placed almost exclusively on issues relating to the formation and functioning of trade unions, employers’ association and the promotion and settlement of collective disputes, while the issues of safety and health of workers are relegated to the background and therefore regarded as peripheral to industrial relations practice (Yesufu, 2000)
The above perception of industrial relations practitioners in Nigeria is parochial because the issues of safety and health on the fundamental human element in the workplace, without which no organization or nation can grow or survive. For instance, the rate of industrial accident in an organization is often used as the index of its level of inefficiency; therefore, any organization which is prone to high industrial accident probably due to absence of adequate safety measure is likely to suffer high labour turnover, absenteeism, low productivity, high labour cost and reduced profitability.
In the same way, an organization that could not maintain the health of its workers is likely to face the problem of weak, feeble and unproductive workforce. It is therefore important that as a country advances in industrialization, issues of health and safety especially in the manufacturing sector, which is the real sector that determines the economic growth and development of a nation, should be given a priority. It is against this backdrop that this study investigated the influence of occupational health and safety on employee productivity in manufacturing sector in Ogun State, Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that majority of workers m the manufacturing sector are daily exposed to diverse occupational health and safety hazards. This has impaired their health status and adversely affected their productive capacity. In the same vein, their pruness to industrial accidents had equally incapacitated physically some of the factory workers, which in turn had caused a decline in their level of productivity. Therefore, there is need to investigate empirically the relationship between occupational health and safety and employee’s productivity in the manufacturing sector using NESTLE PLC, Agbara as a case study.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational health and safety on employee’s productivity in the manufacturing sector.
The specific objectives are:-
i. To find out the meaning of the concepts of occupational health and safety.
ii. To examine the joint effect of occupational health and safety on employee’s productivity.
iii. To determine the relative effects of occupational health and safety on employee’s productivity.
iv. To offer suggestions on how occupational health and safety could be used to enhance employee’s productivity.
1. What is occupational health and safety?
2. What is the joint effect of occupational health and safety on employee’s productivity?
3. What is the relative effect of occupational health and safety on employee’s productivity?
4.What could be done to improve employee’s productivity using occupational health and safety?
Ho: There is no significant relationship between occupational health and employee’s productivity
Hi : There is significant relationship between occupational health and employee’s productivity.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between occupational safety and employee’s productivity.
Hi:There is significant relationship between occupational safety and employee’s productivity.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The findings of this study will help to ameliorate the debilitating working conditions of the factory workers. Also, it will go a long way to enhance the performance of workers in the manufacturing sector. By extension, the economy generally will be boosted because manufacturing sector is the real sector of the economy. In the same vein, the profitability of the organizations in the manufacturing sector would be augmented. This may lead to employment generation. Again, the findings of this study will add to the existing knowledge in the area of occupational health and safety as it relates to employee’s productivity.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is on occupational health and safety as it relates to employee’s productivity. The study is further confined to one organization in the manufacturing sector. The company is Nestle Nigeria Plc, Agbara office.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Occupational Health:– It is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupations.
ii. Occupational Safety: – It is a state of being free from harm, injuring, death, loss, damage and pollution.
iii. Productivity: It is ratio or proportion of output of the commodity to the input of the factor of production
iv. Employee Productivity: – It is the volume of goods and services produced per employee within some specified unit of the year, month, week, day or hour.