POULTRY FARMING: A VERITABLE TOOL FOR ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
This project work is primarily designed to provide complete understanding of poultry farming as an economic tool commercial poultry farming is practiced by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This project utilizes sustainable livelihood framework to view how commercial poultry contributes to households. The method of data collection for the project are through: questionnaire, personal interview, observation while the data collected were analyzed with the use of Chi-square in the testing of hypothesis. It was asserted that employment opportunity can be enhanced by the engagement of Nigerians in poultry farming as a venture.
Commercial poultry production is practiced by most rural households through out developing world, despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This project utilizes sustainable livelihood frame work to review how commercial poultry contributes to households and livelihoods. It would be recalled that the rate of unemployment in Nigeria is very high as reflect by the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) with the statistics that 700,000 jobs were available in the country compared with 7,000,000 graduates being turned out by Nigeria Universities. This is as a result of imbalance in labour supply, rapid population growth rate and faulty educational system among others.
This project write up will focus attention on commercial poultry farming production. A prospective commercial poultry farmer should consider the following factors for the establishment of poultry farming: These include broiler production, egg production, and marketing. Broiler: is a North American term used to describe young male or female chicken less than 12 weeks old based on fast growing breeds, reared and sold specifically for poultry meat. For broiler production, the rapidity of turnover is very high and the current projected profit per broiler is 300. Egg production: the expansion of the business of egg production can partly be attributed to quick turn over. The current estimated gross or net daily profit from the sale of eggs ranges from #2,000 layers is #5000 depending of course on the use of birds of superior genotype, provision of favourable environment and managerial skill.
LOCATION OF THE POULTRY FARMING
Legal clearance must be obtained from appropriate authority before establishing poultry enterprise to prevent the demolition of structures, culminating in the termination of the enterprise. The enterprise must not be a source of nuisance in the nature of fowl odor and noise to neighbor . Ensure access to water, electricity and proper damage. Capital Outlay: This will depend on the size and type of operation and the management system. For the take off, personal savings of up to #250,000 can be utilized particularly for small scale broiler production. Alternatively Agricultural Bank Loans on liberal terns can be considered. Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGSF) and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) poultry farming scheme can as well provide loans to prospective farmer. Manpower Required: For a small scale operation, one poultry attendant should be able to manage a minimum of 2,000 birds either on the deep litter system or in cage. Occasional operations such as manual removal of drops and vaccination require additional labor which could be provided by the members of the family. Feed Supply: In Nigeria, feed cost accounts for about 70% of the cost of poultry production. This is due to the high cost of some critical feed ingredients (e:g maize and soya beans ) which are needed in poultry ration. From the standpoint of a profitable enterprise, the genetic potential of the birds is the beginning of employment. This research is determined to critically examine poultry farming as a veritable tool economic empowerment in Nigeria.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Poultry farming as a veritable tool for economic empowerment depends largely on the attractiveness of this agricultural sector to the Nigerian youth (young graduates), government support in terms of financial support (loan, overdraft) and market potentials for poultry products. In view of this, the following highlighted problems are intended to be solved by this research work.
· Can poultry farming actually provide economic power to the Nigerian youth?
· Is poultry farming business feasible in the Nigerian economy?
· Will the Land Use Act of 1978 (LUA 1978) not be a stumbling block to the attainment of poultry farming as a business concern?
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the research study work is to examine poultry as a veritable tool for economic empowerment.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on poultry farming as an economic tool tool for man`s empowerment. Majorly to be investigated is egg production as a means of livelihood. Therefore, it is limited to a local commercial poultry farm in Osun State as a case study.This study intends to analyze the relevant process of egg production and the attracting factors to the Nigerian youth.
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research will be conducted to examine poultry farming as an economic tool in the hands of Nigerian youth. The source to be used for this study is based on data collected through the two available sources, which are primary and secondary data. The primary source includes data collection through personal observation, interview, questionnaire, and other primary means of getting information. The secondary source includes the use of journals, newspapers, internet, annual reports of agricultural agencies and some other relevant text books. In the analysis of questionnaire, which were administered in order to get information from the customers and the employees of the enterprise, simple percentage will be used to present the various data and Chi-Square will also be used test the relevant hypothesis. Chi-Square is a non-parameters measure that does not depends on population but deals with frequency count.
Chi-Square is defined by the formulae
X2= (o-e)2 = At 5% level of significance = 0.05
= Degree of freedom is given by the formula =(r-1) (c-1)
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Since the paramount aim of this study is to examine poultry farming as an economic tool for economic empowerment. The following hypothesis is thereby drawn for the purpose of this study.
H1: poultry farming as an economic tool enhances employment opportunity
H0: poultry farming as an economic tool does not enhance employment opportunity.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
Research question are declarative statement meant to obtain answer which will state what the researcher is looking for the purpose of this research, the major questions are:
v Can poultry farming business feasible in the Nigeria economy?
v Can poultry farming actually provide economic power to the Nigeria youth?
1.7 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher therefore, belief that by studying poultry farming, it will be of benefit to the economy and individuals alike. It will be beneficial to the economy in the sense that it will help us determined how self employable Nigeria youth can be by engaging in poultry farming. This study will equally evaluate opinion of Nigerian on how they perceive poultry farming as a means of livelihood. In addition, this study will serve as a reference point for future researchers who wants to embark on a project alike.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of justifying this research work, information were difficult to access because of the strict knowledge and technical know-how of poultry farming which is not available to the researcher. Other constraints include among others: Transportation is one of the problem encountered during the period going up and down to the industry to get the needed information. Another problem is the associated problem in the process of data collection in relation to scheduling of time. The scarcity of text books as well as on-line materials . Time Constraints: This project research as a limited time lag within which the research work is to be carried out, completed and submitted for approval. As a result, more data pertaining to the subject matter of this research could not be collected and gathered for analysis. Financial Constraint: There is also the shortage of funds to carry out this research findings at the researcher’s disposal.Lack of Co-operation: Some of the respondents were reluctant or refuse to obtain questionnaire from the researcher on the pretext of time wasting and others who misplaced theirs even misplaced them.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Broiler: Is a North American terms used to describe young male or female chicken less than 12 weeks old based on fast growing breeds, reared and sold specifically for poultry meat.
House chicken: there are the fowls kept in a poultry being provided with all the foods they need by the chicken raiser.
Unemployment: It is an economic indicator that refers to the number of people in an economy who are willing and able to work, but are unable to get a job; a person in this situation is said to be unemployed
Feeding trough: This is a feeder of carved stone, wood, or metal construction used to hold food for animals (as in a stable)
Economic empowerment: This is a term used to mean a program that seek to directly (not through education or health) help people raise their incomes and standard of living. Empowerment refers to the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities.
Brood: Collection of young animal who exist in the same space.