1.0 INSECTICIDES (General Overview)
Insecticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing insects. It is well known fact that many protozoal bacteria diseases are transmitted from man to man by insects. One may combat these diseases not only by means of prohylactic drugs but also by the destruction of the insects carriers. Insecticide is a chemical compound that is lethally toxic to insects either by ingestion or by body contact. It is applied to vegetation, crops and insect breeding areas either as liquid spray or as dry powder. They are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in 20th century.
Nearly, all insecticides have the potential to significantly after ecosystem, many are toxic to human and others are concentrated in food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. It is crucially important that all the rural areas in Nigeria are being educated on the need to eradicate insects especially mosquitoes that might breed around the environment and transmit malaria to people living within the enclave.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in the home being with restricting the availability of insects of three vital commodities; shelter, water and food. If insects become a problem despite such measures, IPM seeks to control them using the safest possible methods targeting the approach to the particular pest. Years now, efforts are geared towards controlling malaria infestation both in urban and rural areas. A lot of measures are being taken to reduce the number of death as a result of malaria. We hear now and then that numbers being quoted by the analyst that died of malaria attack. Thus, free mosquitoes treated nets are always distributed to families and individuals all in a bid to reduce malaria attack from mosquito bite. In the light of this, it is necessary to study God-given substances in this case, plant that has embedded substances that will help man combat mosquitoes or at least reduce infestation to the barest minimum.
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY/WORK
The purpose of this work is to produce mosquito repellants using orange peels (cestrum) wastes perse, which will save the cost of production and purchase, thereby increasing its availability especially in the rural areas. If the work is successful, production of mosquitoes repellants using orange peels will provide source of employment to our teaming youths and also make mosquito repellant within the reach of everybody, thereby reducing the number of death due to malaria caused by mosquito bite.
1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Orange peels (cestrum) will be prepared and used for the production of mosquito coil, which ignited, will repel mosquitoes within the limit of the smoke. The produced coil will be tested for the effectiveness performance. Cost analysis should also be taken to know weather mass production will be more effective or not.