SOCIAL RACISM,DISCRIMINATIVE STRUCTURE AND SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN UNITED STATE

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IMPROVEMENT IN EGG PRODUCTION TRAITS IN THE LIGHT LOCAL CHICKEN ECOTYPE USING A SELECTION INDEX

ABSTRACT

Fifty hens and five cocks from a random mating population of light local chicken ecotype (LLCE) were mated and the fertile eggs hatched to obtain the parent generation (G0) used for this study aimed at improving egg production traits in the LLCE using a selection index. The hens were monitored for short-term (90-days from first day of lay) egg production traits namely: Body Weight at First Egg (BWFE), Average Egg Weight (AEW) and Total Egg Number (TEN). Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS (2001) and paternal half-sib model with Harvey (1990) to estimate descriptive statistics and genetic parameters respectively. These were employed in constructing the selection index. Selection for all the selection criteria (BWFE, AEW and TEN) was in the positive direction. Selected parents were mated to produce next generations – G1 and G2. Selection differentials, selection intensities and genetic response due to selection were also estimated. A control population which spanned for three generations (each generation had its own control population) was used to monitor environmental changes and to estimate the genetic changes due to selection. There were significant increases (P<0.05) in BWFE, AEW, and TEN in the selected populations over the three generations of study such significant increases (P<0.05) were not observed in the control population. Heritability estimates for all traits in all generations and populations were moderate to high. The heritability of the index was also moderate. Such moderate to high heritability estimates indicate high additive genetic variances, implying that these traits were most passed on from the parents to their offspring. Low to high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations was observed between BWFE and AEW in all populations of study. The genetic correlation and phenotypic correlation between BWFE and EN, and between AEW and EN, was moderate to highly negative for all generations and populations of study. A positive genetic correlation was observed between AEW and TEN in G2 of the selected population. A cumulative selection differential of 269.38g, 1.58g and 3.88 eggs were obtained for BWFE, AEW and TEN respectively. Selection response for traits increased over the generations in a fairly linear manner. Realized response per generation was estimated to be 94.22g, 0.84g and 4.85eggs for BWFE, AEW and TEN respectively. It is evident that the simultaneous inclusion of BWFE, AEW, and TEN in a selection index generally improved the performance of selected birds over the generations in the Light Local Chicken Ecotype.