SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECT OF POPULATION GROWTH IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF DEKINA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE
This research is aimed at investigating into the socio-economic effect of population growth in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State. To actualized this investigation, chapter one started with background of the study, statement of the problems, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms. While chapter two revealed the scholars view on the topic. In chapter three the oral interview and questionnaire method of data collection was used by the researchers from the study undertaken it was used revealed and analysis of data. In chapter four socio-economic effect of growth in population causes by early marriage and moral practice as perpetrated by the young ones. Chapter five shown the summary of findings, recommendations and possible conclusion were drawn, that from investigation increase in population cause unemployment, social vices, famine and starvation.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Erawn (1977) defines the concept of population as the number of people living in one geographical area at a particular time. The study of population is as old as the world itself. The need to study demography or population can never be over-emphasized. The question of population gives rise to population census which is inevitable for social, economic and political planning in a country. In the same vein, Alades (1984) says that population refers to a group of people inhabiting geographical location. The trend of Nigerian population since 1963 was about 55.7 millions people as time changes so also thins including population continue to change, that is after the census of 1973 figure, which brought the population figure of Nigeria to 120 million people. Out of the total number, over 75% of the population resides in the rural area. Agricultural activities takes place while the remaining 25% of the population lives in the urban centres. Within the time frame right from when Nigeria attained independence rapid population growth is caused by early marriage, immoral practice as encouraged by young people and purely which dragged so many young girls into such prostitution thereby contributing to increase in population growth. Such population growth affect the labour force. Christianity and Islam, the two major religions abhor population control methods like sex education, the use of contraceptive etc. they inadvertently encourage increase in population. They did not understand the medical devices used in controlling unwanted pregnancies thereby leading to the increase in population by these group.
Large population is synonymous with the expansion of local market. By expansion of local market we means, increase in demand for goods and services in the country. This is as a result of the fact that large number of people constitute consumers. Increase in demand for goods and services will lead to increase in production and that is a good omen to the country’s economic development. A country that has large population will also have more people that are working if other things being equal. These people that are gainfully employed and are potential contributors to the economic development of the country. The more they are the better for the country. As the population of a country continues to increase, so will the number of skill and talented people continue to diversify in all parts of the country. It is in the light development that this study attempt to examine the socio-economic effect of population rate in Nigeria using Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State as a study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the course of this research work, the researcher encountered some problems. Some of these problems are:
– There was no enough time for the researcher to go round the whole local government because the researcher combined academic work with the research.
– There was no enough money for the researcher to produce much questionnaire to circulate the whole village in the local government (Dekina).
– Another problem was that of the respondents; some of them were not ready to respond appropriately for the fear of one thing or the other as they thought it will have negative implication on them.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Population as earlier discuss could be described as the total number of people living in a particular geographical area at a particular period of time. In determining the total number of inhabitant in a particular place, population census is used. Population census could be defined as the counting of all the people in the country by the government at regular period of time usually every ten (10) years. Population census is of great importance to economic, political, socio-cultural planning of the country, reliable and detailed data on the size, required for both planning and research purposes. Population census is the major source or benchmark for data collection population is of great importance to the development of the country.
In the first place, good economic planning is one of the importance of population census enable the government to make plan for the economic growth and development of a country. This is so because census gives information such as the number of people in each occupation such information enable the government to make plan on how to allocate amenities such as school, hospitals, roads, pipe-borne water, electricity etc. to different localities in Nigeria. It also enable the government to know the most appropriate place to establish different type of industry. Political representative is very essential to population growth and national planning. This is because political constituencies are determined by national planning on the basis of the size of population growth. Information such as this, aids the country to determine its population policy. For example, the government of India adopted the policy of birth control measure when it became clear that the population of India was growing too rapidly.
Many developed countries assist the underdeveloped countries in providing such as idea the size of the population. Aids donors will normally not give the same account. The importance of countries at the United Nations Organization with other world assemblies depends on a large extent on the population which it has within the organization of Africa. Population consideration is of important for the above plan. Conclusively, population census is needed and is of important to national planning for political reasons and for effective creation of state, local government, provision of social amenities, public utilizes and for location of industries and the host of others.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research is unique because it is the first study carried out on the socio-economic effect of rapid population growth in Nigeria and the people in Dekina Local Government Area. This has advantage of creating awareness in the society as a result of continuous increase in population as it affect them. This is also important as it open widely the eyes of the people to look into the result on continuous increase in population from various perspectives and to look for means of solving the problem. This study is a model attempt to document the factors that lead to the continuous increase in population in the area, since there is tendency for scholars to take further step into the investigation.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is strictly limited to Dekina Local Government Area due to some reasons beyond t on the researcher’s control. This work would have been conducted on the whole State but for some certain reasons such as financial predicament, transportation, and feeding etc. This financial constraint exhibited itself in the area of not enough questionnaires to cover the whole State. Despite this, transportation and bad road network were among of the problems.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The hypotheses upon which this project work is based is stated below:
1. Continuous increase in population brings about unemployment?
2. Contain culture and tradition of the people contribute to the continuous increase in population which in turn bring about social problem?
3. Early marriage lead to continuous in population.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Socio: According to Oxford Advanced Learners, Dictionary, socio simply means combining form connected with society or the study of society.
Economics: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, economics is the study of how society organizes its money, trade and industry.
Socio-Economic: according to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Socio-economic is based on a combination of social and economic conditions.