STUDIES ON ALTERATIONS OF SERUM PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND BILIRUBIN LEVELS IN PREECLAMPTIC WOMEN
Pre-eclampsia is defined as the presence of systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than or equal to 140mmHg and diastolic blood pressure(DBP)greater than or equal to 90mmHg (Jameil et al., 2014). Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder affecting several organs and maternal systems including the vascular system, liver, kidney and brain (Steegers et al., 2010). It is a complication of pregnancy that contributes to both maternal and fetal problems. Pre-eclampsia is also characterized by the presence of protein in urine called proteinuria. The disorder affects about 2-4% of pregnancies (Lana et al., 2004). Despite the intensive research in this area, the etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown. It seems to have a multifactorial cause and is also known as the “disease of theories”. There are several signs and symptoms which are associated with pre-eclampsia. Although these signs and symptoms are not usually specific for pre-eclampsia, they share almost the same signs and symptoms with pregnancy which are swelling, pitting edema, convulsion, epigastric pain (Jameil et al., 2014). The causes of pre-eclampsia maybe genetic immune placental and other factors. Proteins are large molecules made up of Amino acids bonded together by peptide bond (Chatterjea and Rana, 2012). All proteins have carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. These are essential in their structure. There are numerous sources of proteins like milk, egg, beans etc. There are so many classes of proteins. E.gs. of some proteins include Albumin, globulin, lipoproteins etc. In Pre-eclampsia, there is usually presence of protein in urine. Normally protein being a large molecule is not supposed to be found in urine, because of the damage of the glomeruli of the kidney in a pre-eclamptic patient, there is usually presence of protein in urine. (Neithardt et al., 2002). Therefore in a pre-eclamptic patient, there are usually decreased protein (albumin, globulin and total protein). Also because of the phenomenom of hemodilution and increased demand of the developing fetus, serum albumin decreases during all the trimesters in a pre-eclamptic patient (Harold et al., 2006).