This work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of Eupatorium odoratum extracts on Pseudomonas spp isolated from wound infections. The plant extract was made using ethanol, cold water and hot water. Various dilutions of the extract were prepared in a distilled water, 50µm/ml, 25µm/ml, 12.5µm/ml, 6.25µm/ml, and 3.125µm/ml. The results obtained showed that the plant extract in ethanol had a higher medicinal value with the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6.25µm/ml dilution inhibiting the growth of the test organism. This was followed by the plant extract in hot water which inhibit the organism at the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6.25µm/ml dilution. The plant extract in cold water had the least medicinal value with the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 12.5µm/ml dilution inhibiting the growth of the test organism (Pseudomonas spp). The research shows that the active ingredients of the plant are better extracted with ethanol than other solvents and it shows that the extracts of the leaves ofEupatorium odoratum at low concentration inhibits the growth ofPseudomonas spp.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Eupatorium odoratum (family Asteraceae) is a Christmas bush, also known as bitter bush, Siam weed, baby tea, Satan Maria, is a scrambling shrub. It is a perennial shrub, exotic to Nepal, due to its adverse growth, it is also called Banmara. Stems reach 2cm in diameter. The plants are maintained by a system of abundant, yellowish fine lateral roots. Multiple sprouts arise from the root crown and lower stems (Irobi, 2004). The individual branches are long with relatively few branches. The opposite, three nerved leaves are deltoid to ovate – lanciolate, usually with a dentate margin and a long pointed tip. The leaves are aromatic when crushed. The inflorescences are corymbs of cylindrical heads located on the terminals of lateral branches. There are 15 to 25 tubular florets per head, white, lavender, pink, or blue in colour. The seeds are brownish gray to black achene that is 4mm long with a pale brown pappus 5 or 6mm long (Iwu, 2005).
Eupatorium odoratum is an aromatic shrub, covered in fine grey hairs, stems rounded; blades ovate to diamond shaped, 5 – 15 long, acuminate with yellow dots below; flowers pale mauve or violet. It is a bush tea made for coughs and colds in Babados, and leaves are good healing wounds (Adegoke, 2009).Eupatorium odoratum is used as a traditional medicine in vietnam (Bharatiya, 2006) where its Vietnamese common name is “Cohoi”. While it has been widely considered as a weed by agriculturist (Glasby, 2004), the aqueous extracts and the decoction from the leaves of this plant have been used throughout Vietnam for the treatment of soft tissue wounds, burn wounds and skin infections. The young leaves are crushed, and the resultant liquid can be used to treat skin infection and to stop cut wound from bleeding (Kowaro, 2006). In herbal medicine, leaf extracts with salt are used as a gargle for sore throats and colds. It is also used to scent aromatic baths (Oladunmoye 2007). Extracts of Christmas bush inhibit or kill Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the organism that cause gonorrhoea) in vitro (Okwu 2005) and to accelerate blood clotting (Edoga et al., 2003). Eupatorium odoratum adds copious amount of organic matter to the soil during fallows between cultivation and may reduce the population of nematodes (Ogunleye, 2003). It is also useful as a mulch for row crops (Sofowora, 2008). The Atlas of medicinal plants of middle America (Nuvinyi et al., 2004) reports that Eupatorium odoratumis used in Polynesia as a fish poison.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Eupatorium odoratum has acquired a reputation as a medicinal herb for a variety of ailments including malaria, fever, cough, cold and the aqueous leaf extract of the plant is used as an antiseptic for wound dressing. The decoction of the leaf was used as a cough remedy and the stem decoction can be used in pulmonary hemorrhage.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1) To isolate pseudomonas specie from wound infection.
2) To investigate the antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium odoratum against pseudomonas.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Eupatorium odoratum is a plant that has a variety of uses economically, medically and nutritionally, thus the reason for this study,. The work reveals that the Eupatorium odoratum are used orally against wounds and inflammation in traditional system.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
During this research work set back were encountered on the following areas; Sourcing of information: Since health centers (Bishop Shanahan Nsukka) and institutes visited found it very hard to release already gathered