TEACHER STRESS AND FRUSTRATION AND THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JSS STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
Stress is a word that is gotten from the Latin word called “stringere”, which means hardship or draw tight.
The dictionary defines stress as pressure, tension, worry strain resulting from problems in one’s life. Stress has to do with the social, physiological and psychological make up of man. It is a major factor of weakness of both physical and emotional disorders.
Frustration can prevent one from achieving his goal. It can be seen as disappointment or defeat.
The word stress is different from frustration Stress occurs as a result of a demanding situation (Selyes, 1956). Frustration on the other hand is an intervention situation with an on going activity (Welman, 1975).
Stress is a common occurrence among teachers both in private and government sectors. The behavioural manifestation of stress are lack of adequate concentration and thinking, minor physical ailment like headache, sleepless night and stomach upset. Norfolk (1977) pointed out that people under stress become irritable and over react to things.
Educators stress is defined by Kyriacou (1987) as the experience by a teacher of unpleasant emotions, such as tension, frustration, anxiety, anger, and depression, resulting from aspects of work as a teacher.
Teaching can be a stressful occupation. The interactions with students and co-workers and the incessant and fragmented demands of teaching often lead to overwhelming pressures and challenges which may lead to stress. Where work stress is unrelenting, some negative physiological, psychological and behaviour consequences may result (De Robbio and Iwanicki 1996).
Many teachers would agree that teaching is not only hard work, it can be full of stress. Pressure due to school reform efforts, inadequate administrative support, poor working conditions, lack of participation in school decision making, the burden of paperwork, and lack of resources have all been identified as factors that can cause stress among school staff.
In the multicultural region, contact between cultures could be a cause of workplace stress, for teachers who are more familiar with cultures, acculturative stress can cause lowered mental health (e.g confusion, anxiety, depression) and feelings of alienation; Those who feel marginalized can become highly stressed. Teachers from very different cultures might neither understand nor appreciate the cultural differences of the communities in which they are placed. Since novice teachers are often reluctant to ask for help, they may be afraid to let anyone know that they are having problems in the classroom. This could then lead to additional stress.
Frustration is the blocking of one’s goal. Frustration could be caused by the condition of work and the environment of work. Okoye (1981) pointed out that frustration occurs when there is an interference with an on going action.
All these and many more causes stress in the activities of teachers both in the classroom settings and outside the classroom.
It is believed that a stressed up teacher cannot carry out his activities effectively and efficiently, that is effectiveness and efficiency which are good qualities expected of the teachers will be lost, and when both are absent in teaching, the teacher can not impart the real information to the students, hence, the academic performance of the students might be low or poor. Therefore, in order to avoid poor academic performances in the of students, the numerous causes of stress in teachers should be looked into and checked for quality teachers begets quality students. It is hoped that the result of this study will provide remedy concerning how teachers’ stress and frustration could be checked in relation to the academic performances of students.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine teacher’s stress and frustration and its attendant effect on the academic performance of students. Specifically, this study aims at the following:
i. Identifies the various forms of stress and frustration among teachers
ii. Determines the factors contributing to the causes of stress and frustrations among teachers
iii. Establishes the consequences of stress and frustration among teachers on the overall performance of students
iv. Compares the academic performance of students where teachers have lesson within an atmosphere of no stress and frustration and students where high level of stress and frustration is observed.
v. Highlight the measures to be taken in order to help reduce stress and frustrations among teachers in Nigeria Junior Secondary Schools.
1.3 Significance of the Study
Teachers are very important components in the life of any school organisation, pupils, students and the all round development of our society and the country at large. Stress and frustration on the other hand are destructive instrument in the life of the teacher. It is therefore, necessary to carry out the impact of stress, on students academic performance and proffer solutions to the problem. The study will also help in minimizing stress and thereby maximizing teaching job satisfaction, thus leading to high level of academic performance on the part of the students.
1.4 Statement of the Problems
The problem under investigation is teachers stress and frustration and the academic performance of students using five selected secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government area as case study. It is designed to have an insight into school managerial problems with the result of improving teachers’ productivity and students academic performance.
1.5 Research Questions
The following questions are to be tested
i. What factors are responsible for teacher’s stress and frustration?
ii. To what extent do family problems contribute to teacher’s stress and frustration?
iii. To what level does teacher’s individual difference affect the individual response to symptoms of stress and frustration?
iv. Does teacher’s stress and frustration have significant influence on teacher’s productivity?
v. What effect does teacher’s stress and frustration have on students’ academic performance?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested
1. Teacher’s stress and frustrations are not hinged on economical factors, personal factors, socio-psychological factor, etc
2. There is no significant difference between family problems and teacher’s stress and frustration
3. Teacher’s individual difference has no significant effect on teacher’s stress and frustration
4. Teacher’s stress and frustration have no significant influence on teacher’s productivity
5. Teacher’s stress and frustration have no significant effect on student’s academic performance.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher’s intention was to carry out adequate research work so as to proffer a solution that might be long lasting on teacher’s stress and frustration on the academic performance but this was not achievable due to some constrains faced. Such constraints are:
i. Negative attitude of the teacher
ii. Inadequate time
iii. Financial constraint
iv. Difficulties in gaining first hand information from schools
1.8 Scope of the Study
It is only limited to five selected secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government area of Lagos State. The schools are:
i. Alapere Secondary School
ii. Orishigun Secondary School
iii. Ikosi Secondary School
iv. Apostolic Grammar School
v. Ayedere Secondary School
1.9 Definition of Terms
Ø Stress: means the difficulties encountered by teachers in carrying out their work successfully
Ø Frustration: Is the inability of teachers to adjust positively to a demanding situation in their teaching profession
Ø Teacher: Is the person trained and certified to impart skills, knowledge, values and norms to students
Ø Academic: Academic in relationship to education is an educational study, an educational institution and/or the educational system.
Ø Performance: Performance is defined as the students’ accomplishment of something, the act of carrying out or accomplishing something.