THE EFFECT OF GARCINIA KOLA EXTRACT (BITTER KOLA) ON HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE (DIABETES MELLITUS) AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL LEVEL IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RAT

THE EFFECT OF GARCINIA KOLA EXTRACT (BITTER KOLA) ON HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE (DIABETES MELLITUS) AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL LEVEL IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RAT

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a deliberating disorder in which strick glycemic control and prevention of associated complications are very important. In view of the increasing interest in the use of plant source for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the effect of Garcinia kola extract in blood glucose and serum cholesterol level on alloxan induced diabetic albino rat were investigated.In this research work sixteen albino rat of wistar strain were divided into four groups of four rat in each group. Group one serves as negative control which were non diabetic, and they receives normal poultry feed and 3% tween 80, group two and three which serves as the test were induced alloxan monohydrate to make them diabetic and they received 200mg/kg body weight and 500mg/kg bosdy weight of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola respectively and group four serves as standard group, they were induced alloxan monohydrate to be diabetic and they received 100mg/kg of standard drug (Glucoghage 500mg/kg). Alloxan monohydrate caused significant increase in the level of blood glucose, the level of blood glucose were monitored in test and standard groups after oral administration of the garcinia  kola  extract. The  Blood glucose  significantly lowered in the test groups than that of the standard drug, and there is also a decrease in serum cholesterol of the test groups than that of the standard group.  This shows that Garcinia kola extract offered significant anti-diabetic  and anti cholesterol effect in the rats.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

    Diabetes mellitus is the most important disease involving the endocrine pancreas. Its major Manifestations are disordered metabolism and inappropriate hyperglycemia or high level of blood glucose. Despite all the conventional drugs presently available, the progressive deterioration of diabetes control is such that treatment is still insufficient. Insufficiency of current therapies for the treatment of diabetes, combined with both a lack of trust in conventional medical treatment and an inability of the economy to absorb the cost of pharmaceuticals have created a public interest in dietary supplements.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that involve problem with the hormone insulin (Enrich, 2000). It  is characterized by hyperglycemia, increase protein breakdown, pyuria, weight loss, coma etc. Several fractions such as high calorie diet intake, age, lack of exercise, alcohol consumption and genetic predisposition have been linked with diabetic disease (Enrich, 2000). Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries. The disease is increasing rapidly in many part of the world. In 2000, according  to   WHO (World Health Organization),at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from from diabetes which correspond to 2.8% of world population. This figure is expected to double in the year 2030. Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is associated with alternation in glucose and lipid metabolism and modification in liver enzyme levels (Jenson and Stenders,1998). Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular Diseases(CVD), such as  stroke, heart attarck, atherosclerosis (Adaramoye and Forambi, 2005). About 75% of death among men and 57% of death among women with diabetes mellitus are attributable to cardiovascular diseases.

Garcinia kola otherwise called bitter kola belongs to the family Guttiferae .  It is  found  mainly in the tropical rain forest region of the central and West Africa . It is predominant in the  rainforest belt of southern Nigeria. The seed are edible and are consumed as adjuvant to the true  kola  (Kola nitida) and for medicinal purposes. Garcinia kola  is regaSrded as a wonderful  kola  because  every part of it has a medicinal importance. Garcinia kola  is used in folklore remedies for the treatment of ailments such as liver disorders, diarrhea, laryngitis, bronchitis and gonorrhea . It is also used in the treatment of jaundice, high fever and purgative. Garcinia kola is masticatory and used to prevent  and relieve colic, chest colds, and cough and can as well be use to treat headache .  Garcinia kola has also anti-fungal and ant-microbial effect (Adaramoye, et al., 2002).

1.2   Aim /Objective

This research aimed at knowing the effect of garcinia kola S extract on blood glucose and serum cholesterol level  in alloxan induced albino rats.

1.3   Significance of Study    

Due to increase rate of diabetes mellitus, this present research work was carried out to circulate the knowledge of medical impact of Garciara kola seedon blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels and to discover an alternative way of treatind diabetes without conventional drugs.

Most times ethnomedical practitioners administer this plant extract being ignorant of the effect it may have in human body.

1.4   Statement of Problem

Lack of finance and unavailability of synthetic anti-diabetic drugs has lead to mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients.

Continuous use of synthetic anti-diabetic drugs causes side effect and toxicity. The need to develop an alternative method of treating diabetes mellitus  without side effect and toxicity is required. These statement thereby prompt the need to research an alternative means of treating diabetes mellitus with low cost, no side effect and also no toxicity.

1.5   Limitations of Study

This research work is limited on the anti-diabetic effect of Garcinia kola seed extract on blood glucose and serum cholesterol  due to lack of money to further the research, time factor and insufficient research equipments.