BIOCHEMISTRY

THE EFFICACY OF THE EXTRACT OF CHEWING STICK ON THE AGENTS OF DENTAL CARRIES ISOLATE

ABSTRACT

The bacterial isolate from the teeth was determined by using standard microbiological method. About 0.1ml Aliguot of the 10-2 dilution was aseptically sampled in bacteriological media. The result obtained shows that the bacteriological level detected in the various teeth ranged from 40.0 x10-1, 60.0 x10-1,41.0×10-1, 18.0 X 10-1, 20.0 X 10-1, 15.0 x 10-1, 20.0 x 10-1. The organism isolated were gram positive rod and gram positive cocci. The antimicrobial activity of chewing stick was performed from isolates gotten from the teeth. The organisms included are gram positive cocci and gram positive rod, decoction method was used for the extraction of the active compounds from the plant. The result revealed that the chewing stick showed activity against gram positive rod at the concentration of 62.5mg/ml with the zone of inhibition of 7mm and 5mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC mg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC mg/m) was determined to show that the extract exhibited the growth of the test organism with the MIC between 62.5mg/ml.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The use of chewing sticks has been documented since ancient times. This kind of tooth brushing has been used by the Babylonians some 7000 years ago (Enwonwu et al, 2002) in many traditional cultures, there are no plastic-bristle brushes, rather, the use of herbal chewing sticks for rehiring dental problems is common. The cleansing efficacy of chewing sticks is attributed to the mechanical effects of its fibres release of beneficial chemicals or a combination of both (EL. Said et al, 1976). Some African chewing sticks are also reported to contain fluoridations, silicon, tannic acid, sodium bicarbonate and other natural plague inhibiting substances that can reduce bacterial colonization and plague formation (Pathol 1997).

Tannin exerts an astringent effect on the action of glucosyltransferase thus reducing the clinically detectable gingivitis. Tannins also inhibit the action of glucosyltransferase this reducing plague and gingivitis (Almas & Allafl 1995). Resumes forms a layer over the enamel and this protects against caries. Alkaloids exert bactericidal effect in the oral cavity (Gerrit 1993) Essential (volatile) oils possess characteristic normal and exert antiseptic action (Almas East 1993). They would have their East sulphur compounds have a bactericidal action (Aklitar M.S. 1981). Vitamin C is antioxidant and helps in the repair of tissues. Sodium bicarbonate has abrasive properties and is, thus, used as dentifrice in addition to having a mold germicidal action (Hardy, 2003). The high concentrations of chloride inhibit calculus formation (Darout, 2000) and help in the rerouting of stains from the teeth (Almas East 2003) saturation of saliva, which inhibits demineralization and promotes remineralization of tooth enamel.

A great number of these plant species have related medicinal properties that may be antibacterial D. benthamianusis rich in flavonoid compound (Ghawla, 1983) such as oxyayain A, oxyayain B, Ayanin and Distemonantin. These components have been implicated in anti-tumor activity, antioxidative activity (Rubola & Tanaka, 1993), antiarenergic activity and treatment of bacteria, fungi and viral (Chawla, 1983). Anogeissuleicarpus is also another plant species used in traditional medicine as a remedy for many ailments of livestock and man, which include helminthosis, schistomiasis, leprosy, diarrhea and psoriasis (El Mostehy and Dorner WG, 1981). In addition to these applications, Hollist (19) reported that A. Leiocarpusis one of the major plants commonly used as chewing stick in Nigeria. Fagarazanthoxyloides is also widely distributed in Africa countries. The root-back extract is used in treating elephantiasis, toothache, sexual impotence, gonorrhea malaria, dysmenorrhoea and abdominal (George et al ,1985).

Many studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial, anticarries, anti-therapeutic and antifungal properties of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of various chewing stick.(Mohammed A, Turner JE,1983). There are documented reports on the antimicrobial activity of a Leicarpuson oral-microflora. (kubotak et al 1988) reported the antimicrobial effects of its root extract on Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeroginosa (Al Lafit, Ababreh H 1995). Workers in west Africa have also reported the anti-sickling and antimicrobial activity of the extracts of fagarazanthoxyloides (Hattab FN, miswak,1997).

Water extracts from the plant showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease (Hardy j& Ezirmly,1997).The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides was also reported (Ndungu et al,1990) and it is a very popular anthelmintic amongst the various tubes in Uganda. It has also been found that the alchoholic extracts of the root-bark possesses considerable antibacterial (Acta odontal,scand 1989). An anti-sickling agent (AL-Otaibi 2003) and anti-inflammatory amide were isolated from the plant. Therefore, this paper examines the inhibitory activity of some selected Nigerian chewing stick extracts against selected and clinical isolates of candida species.