THE IMPACT OF LABOUR TRAINING ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY
Organizations are beginning to appreciate labour as the greatest asset of a company, where the economic, political and social growth of the entity can be said to be a function of the level of human resources development and its efficient utilization. Thus, this implies that training is highly important to develop and utilize human resources.This research work examine the impact of labour training on employees productivity in the development of Nigeria economy with special reference to Nigeria postal service. The research further examined the practice of manpower training and employees productivity in the Nigeria Postal Service (NIPOST). Analysis of the data gathered shows that training is essential to labour. Also, labour productivity development is determined by training. The result also shows that NIPOST has an organized manpower training programme and Labour training on employees productivity has effect on Nigeria economy development. Conclusion was drawn based on the result of the analysis and suggestive recommendations were made.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Economic development is very vital in any country and an aspect of economic development is human capital development. With the growth and advancement of management principles in Nigeria, many organizations are beginning to appreciate labour as the greatest asset of an organization, where the economic, political and social growth of the entity can be said to be a function of the level of human resources development and its efficient utilization. Thus, this implies that training is highly important to develop and utilize human resources. Training can be defined as a short term systematic process through which an employee acquires technical skill and attitude required to perform a specific task or job adequately. It is an organized procedure which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. It is a recipe for helping employees develop their weaknesses, a concept more traditional in management thinking. Sanusi (2009) states that with anticipated challenges of the 21st century, greater empowerment of people must be ensured as new technique, procedures and systematic evolve to address the problems of the millennium. He described training as “Creating value through people” and urged institutions to harness the enormous values and potentials that are locked up with the work force for increase performance in their field of endeavour. NIPOST as an organization according to its policy, encourages and assists its employees to improve their skills and knowledge with a view to raise the standard of efficiency within NIPOST Training to improve efficiency and increase productivity, requires that, it is necessary for the organization to embark on effective training programmes, once people are employed into the organization to enhance the productive capabilities.
According to Buckly and Caple (1992) “Training is planned and automatic effort to modify or develop knowledge skill and attitude through learning experience to acquire effective performance in an activity or range of activities.” The believe that, the primary aim of training is to develop individuals in terms of skills, so that, he can perform effectively on a given task. However, the most frequently used index training and productivity in any given organization is the level of output and growth of the organization. Training has been identified as a potent strategy to improve organization productivity. The Acting Executive Director of Agricultural and Rural Management Training (Samuel Folayan) disclosed the same. Management of organizations should adopt periodic training of their employees to optimize their potentials and boost growth. Effective training will translate to improvement of employees’ performance and organization productivity. According to Flippo (1980), improved productivity is what portrays an establishment’s commitment through policies
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The research’s work is to assess the important of training and development to employees’ performance. The involvement of the organization in training and development of their employees through the seminars, workshop, conference, short and long term training programmes. The Nigerian Postal Services (NIPOST) realizes the importance of training and development in pursuance of the corporate goals and objective and therefore, has a comprehensive development policy in order to create an effective workforce. The personnel or administrative manager of the industry who takes care of manpower training and development of the Nigerian Postal Services (NIPOST) has the responsibility to encourage, the development of human resources into division and therefore, he is to identify training needs in conjunction with appropriate organizational requirement. However, a pilot survey has identified the following problems:
a. Some of the employees believe that, if they are sent on courses, seminars or conference and upon returns, they will always want to be promoted automatically without observing the due process of promotion.
b. Some employees also believe that immediately when they are back from workshop, seminars and conference they are sponsored to undertaken by their organization, they may be assigned to the position of trust with the knowledge they have gained.
c. Some of the workers or employees especially those in upper cadres do benefit from such training progamme than others. Hence, this group of people does not have confidence in the programme because of these flaws.
d. Some employees expectations after training and development always negate the intention of the management that sees such training programmes in the light of self development rather than acquiring advancement
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research work is aimed at examining the impact of Labour Training on Employees productivity in the development of Nigeria Economy, with the following objectives:
· To examine the practice of manpower training and employees productivity in the Nigeria Postal Service (NIPOST).
· To determine whether practice conforms with modern staff training programmes adopted by the organization.
·To determine solutions to the problems confronting training in Nigeria Postal Service (NIPOST) and the Nigeria economy as a whole.
· To determine the appropriate skills development to perform well in the organization.
· To determine employment growth rate, distribution of employment by industry.
· To determine the training and skill development that will achieve vision 2020.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research questions will examine the relationships and possible explanations to the subject matter. Therefore, research questions for the problems aforementioned are the followings
· Is training essential?
· Which training policy is to be adopted?
· What are the basis for training?
· What are the criteria for selecting employee for training?
· What are problems confronting training programs in the organization?
· Does training have relationship with efficiency?
· Does labour training on employee productivity have effect on Nigeria economy development?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is poised to establish or examine the practice of manpower training and employees productivity in the Nigerian Postal Service NIPOST. This will reveal whether this practice is in line and related to modern staff training in the development of nations. Training and skill development will reduce unemployment if government and organizations could inculcate it in their policies to develop human capital in the nation. Skill development boost national productivity and reduces unemployment. If all organizations adopt training as a strategy to boost productivity, this will improve the quality of citizenry in the nation. Organizations and government need to give room for training and seminars that would help employees develop their strengths. Achieving the millennium goals in Nigeria is tantamount to achieving the goal of vision 2020. As a determined end, such a pursuit, should begin with putting in place necessary skills and competencies as the parameters for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth and development.
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
In order to ensure the reliability of this study, it will be based on some assumptions. These assumptions will be tested and determined by the means of statistical methods. However, we will be guided by the following:
Ho: Training is not essential to labour.
H1: Training is essential to labour.
Ho: The labour productivity development is not determined by training.
H1: The labour productivity development is determined by Training.
Ho: NIPOST does not have an organized manpower training programme.
H1: NIPOST has an organized manpower training programme.
Ho: Labour training on employees productivity does not have effect on Nigeria economy development.
Ho: Labour training on employees productivity has effect on Nigeria economy development.
Ho: Training does not have relationship with efficiency.
H1: Training has relationship with efficiency.
Ho: The growth of NIPOST does not successfully influence the growth of Nigeria economy.
H1: The growth of NIPOST successfully influence the growth of Nigeria economy.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This is the specification of procedure for collecting and analyzing the data necessary to solve problem at hand. The research will require collection of secondary data on the organization’s training programmes from 2006 to 2011. The study will also require the use of primary data by giving out questionnaire to be administered by the staff and customers of NIPOST basically to collect necessary information for the project work. Simple random sampling technique will be employed in sampling respondents. The data garnered will be presented on tables and charts. Chi-square as a test of frequencies observed events against expected events will be used to test the stated hypotheses for the impact of labour training on employees productivity.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the impact of labour training on employees’ productivity using one of the NIPOST territories as a case study. Hence, the study will state the contributions of training to employees’ productivity as well as the structure problems and prospects of training on employees productivity in one of the NIPOST territories. The data to be analysed in this study will be obtained from the staff of Nigeria Postal Service (i.e one of the territories) and also from the customers of the same territory. The result can only be interpreted with caution when a general reference to the impact of training on employees productivity occurs i.e how training on employees has affected improved productivity and efficiency to bring about development in the country.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will be essentially based on the impact of labour training on employees’ productivity using NIPOST (one of its territories) as a case study. In the course of conducting this research work it is expected that the following will constitute impediments to the effective conduct of the study
a) Time constraint within which the study must be completed.
b) Financial constraint
c) Inaccessible and inadequate data
Nevertheless, I believe the above limitations will in no way affect the reliability and validity of the research study.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Development: The process of producing or creating a new and advanced products or utilities which will bring about increase in GDP and other institutional arrangement.
ii. Labour: Employees who are supplying their mental, physical efforts and time towards production effectiveness.
iii. Postal Service: All services rendered by the post office e.g receiving, processing and sending letters, sales of forms, counter services etc.
iv. NIPOST: Nigeria Postal Service
v. Counter Services: Services rendered and products offered for sale
vi. Occupational level: Specific, specialized additional knowledge, skills and attitudes, which are necessary for the particular job.
vii. Management Development: Focus on improving, keeping staff abreast with any relevant new knowledge that may enhance their productivity.
viii. On-the-Job-Training: Training programmes that takes place within the actual job environment.