THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH
The training and development of employees and management team has continued to evolve time and time again. Training and development has come to be seen as pivotal in implementing organizational-wide cultural change efforts, such as developing a commitment to customer service, adopting total quality management, or making a transition to work directed work teams. A successful training begins with a thorough needs assessment to determine which employees need to be trained and what they need to be trained to do. Any training undertaken without a careful analysis of whether or not it is needed is likely to be ineffective and a waste of money. However, this research is concerned with the effects of training and development on the employees of Power Holding Company of Nigeria and this has proved to be vital to future economic, socio-cultural and the sustenance of civilization of the larger Nigerian society. Training and development in PHCN is still haphazard, disjointed and uncoordinated. To move forward improvement and thorough needs assessment and proper analysis is important in order not to continue wastage of human and capital resources due to lack of proper training.
1.1 BACKROUND TO THE STUDY
For any organization to succeed, the human element has to be developed, and motivated. It has been proved overtime that training and development is closely linked to the short, medium, and longtime business plans and has been seen as a vital element in the organization’s ability to prove itself with its customers. These provides those responsible for implementing training and development with the best possible raison d’etre – a direct contribution to corporate goals. Thus in a fast moving consumer goods Company, training will be geared towards sales achievements against the competition. In a high- technology company, training will be geared to product quality and innovation. In a district general hospital, training will be geared towards the provision of a high and reliable standard of patient care.
The training function, now popularly called the Human Resource Development [HRD], coordinates the provision of training and development experiences in organizations. Training function begins with the diagnosing of training needs and the establishments of a clear cut objective for training programs. The next step is to design and deliver training programs that uses appropriate methods and procedures to maximize the learning and subsequent job performances of trainees (Bamtefa, 2000). Recent changes in the environment of business have made the HRD functions even more important in helping organizations maintain competitiveness and prepare for the future. Technological innovations require training for affected employees. Competitive pressures are also changing the way organizations operate and the skills that their employees need. For instance organizations need to provide quality management and customer service trainings so as to keep up with the rising challenge of consumer expectations. Restructuring and downsizing also means that many employees need to be trained to take on expanded responsibilities. The training and development of employees is an issue that has to be faced by every organization. The amount, and quality of training carried out varies enormously from one organization to another. Factors influencing the quantity and quality of training and development activities according to Wayne (2007) include:
1. Degree of change in external environment [e.g. technological change, new legislation etc]
2. Decree of internal change [new processes, new markets, etc]
3. Availability of suitable skills within the work force
4. Adaptability of the existing work force
5. The extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal career development
6. The commitment of senior management to training as an essential part of economic development
7. The extent to which management sees training as a motivating factor in work
8. Knowledge and skills of those responsible for carrying out the training
Trainings and development are provided for many reasons: to orient new recruits to the organization, or to teach them on how to perform in their initial tasks to improve the current performance of employees who may not be working as effectively as desired, preparing employees for future promotions or for upcoming changes in designs, processes or technology in their present job (Stradder, 2003). Finally, art organizations philosophy and strategy are inextricably linked with its approach to improving the current or future performance of its employees. Organizations that are not committed to the training and development of their own workforce will instead seek to hire skilled employees from outside. It is important to note that training and developments of employee can also help reduces cost, by reducing wastages in production. Training and development provides a framework for improving business performance and competitiveness through a systematic approach setting and communicating business objectives and developing people to meet these objectives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is not just enough to set up an organization, employ people to work and procure machines to be utilized. The main objective of human resource department of any organization is to help contribute to the organizations overall goals. Training programs should be developed systematically and with the organizations true needs in mind. The basic problem facing organization is the problem of human resources. Every organization at some point in time will have a need, which is linking the individuals to the strategic places, functions, and positions in the organization.
A survey of management training practice revealed that only 27% of organizations systematically assessed the training needs of their managers. Often there is no systematic effort to predict future training needs or to determine if perceived needs and problem actually exist and can be properly addressed. It has also been discovered that training are done without careful analysis of whether or not it is needed or that it is likely to be ineffective and a waste of money. As inappropriate training can also sour the attitudes of trainees towards all organizationally sponsored trainings and may reduce their motivation to attend future and perhaps more useful programs.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1. To determine the relationship between training and development of workers and organizational growth.
2.To determine the essentiality of training and development on organizational success.
3. To know the extent to which workers behavior could change as a result of training and developmental programs.
4. To identify various stages of implementing the training and development programs for effectiveness.
5. To make recommendations based .on the findings of the
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do employees need additional training program to meet up with organizational goals?
2. To what extent does systematic training and development change employee’s behaviour towards improved performance?
3. Can organized training and development of employees lead to customer’s satisfaction?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1. Ho: Employees do not require additional training and development to meet up with organizational changing demand.
HI: Employees do not require additional training and development to meet up with organizational changing demand
2. Ho: Systematic training and development programmes do not significantly change employees behaviours and perception towards assigned tasks.
Hi: Systematic training and development programmes significantly change employees behaviours and perception towards assigned tasks.
3. Ho: training and development of workforce will not lead to customer’s satisfaction
Hi: training and development of workforce will improve customer’s satisfaction.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
With this research carried out, organizations should know that training and development is a learning activity which is directed towards future needs, rather present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance, Managers must realize the need to apply a systematic and coordinated approach to training and development of employees as the only way to achieve success. This research will also be of immense benefit to students of managements, as it will help them to know that with a well-trained work force organizations will tum out a high standard of goods and services, in a more cost-effective manner. As a result of this research, government should ensure that organizations embarked on training and development of their staff as a means of enriching the country with competent, productive, and professionally trained working class.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research focuses mainly on the Effect of Training and Development on Organizational Growth, and the study is based on Power Holding Company of Nigeria [P.H.C.H]. due to factors such as logistics, time and financial constraints in carrying out the study extensively to cover every aspect, the study has been restricted to a particular site preferably the office of P.H.C.N located at Oba Akron Road, Ikeja, Lagos. Time constraints, financial constraints, frivolity of workers during interview, and the unavailability of adequate data bank for information are few of the limitations encountered during the course of the research exercise.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education: This is any long-term learning activity which is aimed at preparing individuals for a variety of roles in society: as citizens, workers, and members of family groups. The primary focus of education is on the individual and his or her needs, and secondly on the community as a whole.
Learning: It is process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, skills, and values in order to be able to adapt to the environment in which we live. Such adaptation generally, but by no means always, involves some recognizable change in our behavior.
Training: This is any learning activity which is directed towards the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purposes of occupation or task. The focus of training is the job or task. This is any learning activity which is directed toward future needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. The focus of development tends to be primarily on an organization’s future manpower requirements, and secondly on the growth needs of individuals in the workplace.
Growth: This refers to an increase in some quantity over time; the quantity can be physical [e.g. growth in height, growth in an amount of money] or abstract [e.g. a system becoming more complex, an organism becoming more mature]. This expression refers to decisions about the deployment and treatment of personnel taken by line units as well as personnel specialists. HRM implies an approach which recognizes that employees are only one group among several, such as customers and shareholders, who have a claim on the resources of the organization. In practice, HRM cannot be considered different from Personnel management approach operating in a competitive environment.
Management development: A systematic process for ensuring that an organization meets its current and future needs for effective managers; typical features include manpower reviews, succession planning, performance appraisal and training, both on and off the job.
Organization development: A long-range, or strategic approach to change .involving the whole organization, or a major part of it, aimed at improving organizational processes and cultural development as a major contribution to the organization’s mission and goals
Employee: One who is recruit to work under the’ supervision of a boss and he or she is being paid for it. Such a person may also be called a staff, subordinate or a worker.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study comprised five different chapters with each of the chapter discussing different part of the work. Chapter one will contain the introductory part of the work with other headings like the general background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, hypotheses, its significance and the scope of the study. Chapter two discusses the review of related literature and theoretical framework. Chapter three focuses on the research methods adopted for the study. Amongst other things, it discussed research design, population, sampling technique, instrument an others. Chapter four contains the data analysis, presentation and test of hypotheses, and finally, chapter five treats summary, the conclusion and recommendations.