THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING IN IMPROVING EMPLOYEE’S EFFICIENCY
This project examines training as a means of improving employees efficiency using Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi as a case study. The research problem is to examine how training contributes to the improvement of employees efficient in an institution. The problems are stated in form of questions such as, does training improve employees performance? How do workers react to changes in an institution? Of what significance is training to the institution? The instrument used in the collection of data was questionnaire. Primary and secondary sources such as textbooks and journals were also consulted. In the analysis of data collected, the simple percentage was used in the course of analyzing the data. The researcher came up with the following findings; that training contribute to the improvement of employees’ efficiency in the institution. The study hereby recommends that workers should be informed about the training program to facilitate their participation. Training of workers in the institution should be on continuous basis so that the institution can meet the changes that take place in he environment. The research strongly believes that if the above recommendations are adopted, workers efficiency would be substantially improved in the institution.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is common phenomenon to hear institutions complaining about the inefficiency of their employees in delivering services. This problem is not peculiar to one institution; it cuts across various institutions in the country. What aroused the interest of the researcher, in this topic despite all the efforts made by the organization through training to improve employee’s efficiency in performance their duties, there is still a sharp decline in improving efficiency. The management of the institutions theremselves do not rest in their efforts to find out how to arrest the situation. They have provided a lot of commendable incentives for their employees in order to motivate them to improve on their efficiency.
The researcher saw this topic as worth researching because he has come across this problem of employees inefficiency in the cause of his one-year industrial training. The employee’s activities call for a thorough appraisal, and review so as to spot light the problem(s) militating against efficient performance. From the researcher’s observation, some of the employees’ problems identified include; lack of good human relation, inexperience and work pressure. It appears that there is a fall in standard of performance of institution employees especially in terms of customer’s relations.
Training as a means of improving employee’s efficiency is a theory that needs to be embraced. There are other means of improving employee’s efficiency. For example, application of the technology and motivational techniques. Even for an employee to be able to operate a new and technical device like computer, he/she needs to be trained and retrained in the operation of such a device. It is from the above analysis that this researcher come to a decision to investigate training as a means of improving employees efficiency.
Training is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose (Manpower Service Commission, 1981). Training is a planned process aimed at modifying attitude, knowledge on skills behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance on a range of activities. It develops the attitude of individual in the workplace and satisfies the future manpower needs of the organization. Organization can embark on different types of training to improve employees’ efficiency in carrying out their function. Induction training is designed for newly employed workers to acquaint them with the actual of what is expected of them.
On the job training is when an employee is able to put into practice and doing it successfully what he/she had learnt in his course of study, that development could be said to have taken place in his/her course of carrying out responsibility in his/her area of strength would be known and be encouraged to keep it up. Off-the job training is when an employee is sent on course of study outside the organization. This may involve sending him/her abroad to acquire knowledge on the introduction of new technology into the organization.
Training prepares people for work and helps in enhancing their worth to their employee and to themselves. A systemic training gives the workers the confidence to execute any assignment given to him/her. This is because he knows what is expected of him and believes he can do it. This propels him to think and possibly come out with innovative ideas on how best to execute an assigned job.
Every organization requires adequate training of its employees to actualize its corporate objectives. Training is one of the ways in which staff efficiency and effectiveness could be improved. The process of training is a continuous one. Money spent by the organization on the training of its employees is money well invested. Employees who have not received adequate training before being assigned with responsibility lacks the necessary confidence with which to carry out the job. An employee should grow through systemic training. It is only then that he will feel confident to carry out responsibilities of the job, because he knows what is expected of him/her on the job and because he can do it, his enthusiasm on the job increases. It is a person in that position who can think and originate ideas as to how best to carryout the task of the job. Employees who are not trained trend to stick to what they were taught at the first time of work. they are frightened of doing the job in a different way because something might go wrong and they cannot take.
At the 14th Annual General meeting of the Nigeria Employers consultative association (Enehero, 1970) said “the development of human resources cannot be the entire concern of our nation’s educational institution”. It is also the responsibility of other institutions capable of performing training functions. Every institution whether public or private necessarily does considerable training. Some of which is organized and some haphazard and incidental. If employers display greater readiness than many of them do, to invest in training we can hope more rapidly to supplement the work of educational and other training institutions. However, there are many employers in the country who still do not believe in the philosophy of training. To them, training is costly and unnecessary. That attitude however is an unfavourable one which in the long run will do such organization more harm than god. There is a drive in Nigeria, to promote Nigerians to positions of higher responsibilities in industries and only companies that prepared to train their workers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research work is with the intention of looking into some problems bedeviling training and employees efficiency.
1.3 Research Questions
The following questions will be focused on in this research work;
1. What is the impact of training on workers’ performance?
2. What effects do the area of priority in training have on employee’s performance?
3. What are the types of training programs and their effects on employees performance?
4. What is the relationship between the method of evaluation techniques and the level of employee’s performance?
It is important to test hypotheses because of its relevance in the decision taken. However, this study will test the following hypotheses;
1. That there is no significant relationship between training and improvement in employees efficiency.
2. That there is no significant relationship between problems encountered in training and employees efficiency.
3. That there is no significant relationship between the defined method of training and employees efficiency.
4. That there is no significant relationship between the evaluation technique and employees efficiency.
1.5 Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is as follows;
1. To examine the impact of training on workers job performance.
2. To look into the priority the organization give to the training of their staff.
3. To determine the type of training programs organization adopt for their staff to enhance their performance.
4. To determine the method of evaluation, techniques organizations adopt in assessing the training of their staff.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study lays emphasis on improving emphasis on improving employees efficiency in Nigeria, using Auchi Polytechnic because training also serves as the spring board for other bigger organizations.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Managers will this study be of great benefit to, as the findings and recommendations will increase their understanding of the training needs of the employees and the training techniques to apply in order to increase the overall productivity. The research work would also be relevant in the academic level. It will help to improve the quantity of the research work in this area of management of people in the institution.
The postulation of the study can arouse other research interest in the institution. Such new researchers will enrich the literature on training as an important topic in organizational behaviour and management. This study is also significant to the government in the ground that it will reveal the benefits and constraints of staff training on workers performance. This will enable the government to appreciate the benefits of training and encourage them to provide adequate funds to finance manpower in government owned institutions.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In writing this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of administrative problems. The first problem that was encountered was that of getting information from the organization, under study and administering of questionnaires was not an easy task to undertake. Usually as a private company the fear of giving vital information to the public is usually very difficult. The problem of embarking on training programme for the employees, this made it impossible for the researcher to come out with adequate information that would have enriched this project more. This went a long way to affecting the information the researcher would have gathered from the employees.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
To enhance the understanding of this study, the following terms have been defined as used;
1. Employees: A group of persons who are in legal relationship on employee(s) to execute a job for price called wage(s) (Imafidon, 2000).
2. Training: This is a process of updating old skills as well as developing new skills in a particular job. In other words as an organized procedure by which people learn and acquire knowledge and for skill for a definite purpose. It is the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts or attitudes that result in improved performance in another environment (Goldstein, 1986).
3. Development: A converse of action designed to enable the individual to realize his potentials for growth in the organization. It is only learning activity that is directed towards future needs rather than present needs. It is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance (Osoba, 2005).
4. Management: Those who employ others resources into productive process in order to achieve organization goal(s) (Wendell, 1978).
5. Efficiency: This means the quality of being able to perform ones work diligently and well. It can also be regarded as the ratio of output to input (Beach, 1975).
6. Leaning: Leaning is a complex problem of acquiring knowledge understanding. Skills and values in order to be able to adapt to the environment in which we have lived. Learning is basis for training and development. The acquisition of learning depends on the innate qualities of the learner, such as intelligence, the skills of the teacher and the condition under which the learning take place (Osoba, 2005).
7. Trainer: This is the person who trains workers in organization (Yodder, 1970).
8. Trainee: This is the person who undergoes some form of training (Subba, 1990).
9. Performance: This is aggregate result of efforts of workers towards achieving the organizational goal (Okho, 1998).