THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ZOBE DAM ON ITS NEIGHBOURING ENVIRONMENT
This research work examines the socio-economic impact of Zobe Dam on its neighboring environment. Specific objectives includes how the construction of the dam has brought about changes in farming techniques, their standard of living and its potential contribution to the overall development of the area. The problem hinges on how the construction of dam has triggered changes in farming techniques in the area. The proposed hypothesis (Ho) that: there is no relationship between Zobe Dam and socio-economic activities taken place around the dam site, (Hi) that: there is relationship between Zobe Dam and socio-economic activities taking place around the dam site before and after the Zobe Dam construction in Dutsin-ma Local Government Area, were tested.
The result of the hypothesis testing is that; there is a relationship between Zobe Dam and socio-economic activities around the dam site. Therefore, it was concluded that the socio-economic activities of people around the study area are strongly influenced by the dam.
In every society whether rural or urban there is dominant economic activity engaged by large number of population of that society. This research focus on Zobe Dam and its socio-economic impact on the people living around the dam site. A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams to confine and utilize the flow of water for human purposes (Monk house et al, 1973). According to Lawson (1972) resources behind dams are man-made water bodies which are important for water resources development programmes. Dams are built for single or multiple uses. Single use dams are constructed for single purpose like hydroelectric power generation. Multiple or multipurpose dams are built to supply water for diverse uses such as water supply for municipal and industrial uses, livestock and fishing production etc. (Norman 1976).
Dam project or construction of dams dates to many centuries ago. Starting in the Nile and Tigris in the present day Egypt and Iraq respectively. In Nigeria most of our dams are multipurpose dams, such as Kainji dam which was built in 1968, Tiga dam in Kano, Bakalori dam in Zamfara, Goronyo dam Sokoto, and Zobe Dam in Katsina state (Norman 1976). Dams have been used by man long before the Christian era. The concept of ancient river valley civilization has been widely accepted for many years and five valley societies of importance are well known as; Egypt in Nile valley, Indian civilization in the Indus valley, china in the yellow river valley (Oliver, 1976).
According to Oliver (1971), the costs of dam construction are expensive. Apart from flood control, they can also be utilize to hydropower, improve navigation, provide irrigation waters and established recreational facilities. Large dams have other negative features in addition to cost. The reservoir that forms behind the dam may in updates thousands of acres of fertile agricultural land. Another disadvantage of dam is that; it has adverse effect on the human health as the water facilitate the breeding of malaria transmitting mosquitoes and tiny black flies that acts as host for worms that can be barrowed into human blood stream and cause river blindness(Oliver, 1971).