XENOPHOBIC VIOLENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA: ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA-NIGERIA RELATIONS IN 21ST CENTURY
The main objective of this study is to assess the economic implication of Xenophobic violence on Nigeria-South Africa economic relations. The survey research design is adopted. The population of the study comprises of 3000 people from the general public in Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents from the population for the study The study made use of primary source of data. A mean score rating method was used to analyses. The study found out that Nigeria-South Africa relation has been a potpourri of cooperation and conflict. Xenophobia, though a worldwide phenomenon continues to plague African countries with development, economic hardships and immigration issues. The alienation of foreign nationals especially black immigrant in South Africa had successfully created a thick line of partition between the “we” and the “them” in South Africa, undermining the ethos of black brotherhood rooted in Africa socialism and communalism. The study went further to recommend that the government of South Africa must intensify efforts to empower the black population in the post-apartheid South Africa in other to resolve the contradictions of apartheid and ensure a free society for all. Similarly, the white minority that hold the commanding heights of the post-apartheid South African economy must show the willingness to open the space for competition and inclusion.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
On May 11, 2008, South African nationals in South Africa attacked foreigners, mainly blacks living in poor areas. the attacks began in Alexandra, Johannesburg and spread to other parts of the country. Due to the event, 62 people were officially confirmed dead; 342 foreign stores were looted and 213 burned. Forty-one foreigners were killed during the incident; such types of xenophobic attacks against foreigners had already taken place in the country and reached their peak in May 2008. In addition, “at least 670 people were injured and more than 100,000 displaced”. Due to the intensity of the violence, the Alliance (DA) urged the South African government to organize and deploy the army to help the police stop the attacks. However, it is only on the eleventh day that the government deploys the army; at that time, about “40 people died, hundreds wounded and thousands displaced”. It was not until May 26, 2008, that the government declared the incident under its control. The attack continued to increase despite the promises. (Ige, 2018)
This perpetual racial intolerance and these violent attacks against Nigerians living in South Africa have generated local and international condemnation. This study thus clearly highlights the fundamental issues of racial intolerance and aversion for foreigners, especially Nigerians in South Africa, in the wider historical context of the apartheid regime and post-conflict socio-economic relations. -apartheid who shaped the existential notions of false community, vague rights and vague sense of belonging among a number of black South Africans and, in turn, the economic disconnect between the two countries. Indeed, the question of xenophobia in contemporary South Africa is made up of profound psychosomatic reports and the negative product of the apartheid regime that can not be diverted from the collective consciousness of the people of the arctic nation. in sky. This resulted from the reorientation of black South Africans after the post-apartheid era. This is all the more true given the concomitant dispossession of their wealth and personal pride by the disgusting and disgusting apartheid regime that exploited and separated them on their own land. The reality of these historical facts has continued to hinder progress and development, particularly among Black communities in South Africa; whereas ‘xenophobia’ is a vice that often manifests itself as a manifestation of aggression against black outsiders by black South Africans. In addition, the political crisis of this dark period led to a social dislocation, which in turn affected their economic, educational and socio-cultural progress and the development of the required skills that would have prepared them for high-level jobs and good integration. in a new South. Africa promises a better future.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
South Africa’s internal environment has been hostile to non-nationals, particularly undocumented migrants, and as such, there is an implicit culture of impunity, which promotes popular justice in most communities. Unquestionably and undoubtedly, this hostile disposition towards non-nationals has subsequently made South Africa one of the most dangerous countries in the country. As a result, Nigerians and foreign business owners are generally attacked during xenophobic attacks. In these dangerous and perilous times in South Africa, xenophobic attacks have inevitably caused many fears and worries, negative feelings in the minds of people living inside and outside the country. Infected, pathetically and emotionally, he has radically discouraged Nigerians and many other foreign investors from coming to South Africa in respect of economic relations. This subsequently put a strain on relations between Nigeria and South Africa; and the economic development of the country. It has also plunged the country into a state of perplexity, perplexity and perplexity. Although the country has dynamic and brilliant policies and a framework capable of dealing with criminal offenses or perpetrators of various attacks, these virtues have not really been transformed to reduce the xenophobic attacks directed against Nigerians in South Africa. A major problem arising from this inefficiency is the difficult relationship between Nigeria and South Africa partnerships over the years. This strenuous relationship is lack of mutual diplomatic and tactful reciprocity on the part of the South Africa government and the country’s non-state actors for the strategic role Nigeria played in the struggle against apartheid. It is therefore pertinent to assess the pitfalls or effects of xenophobic attacks on South Africa’s economic relationship with Nigeria; and imperative to explore whatsoever diplomatic crisis between Nigeria and South Africa.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this study is to assess the economic implication of Xenophobic violence on Nigeria-South Africa economic relations. The specific objectives of this study are:
1. To access the relationship between Xenophobic violence with countries’ economic relation.
2. To analyse the impact of xenophobic violence on countries’ economic relationship.
3. To discover the effectiveness of the corrective measures taken to control xenophobic violence between South-Africa and Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between Xenophobic violence with countries’ economic relation?
2. What is the impact of xenophobic violence on countries’ economic relationship?
3. What is the effectiveness of the corrective measures taken to control xenophobic violence between South-Africa and Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1. H0: There is no relationship between Xenophobic violence and countries’ economic relation.
2. H0: There is no impact of xenophobic violence on countries’ economic relationship.
3. H0: There is low effectiveness of the corrective measures taken to control xenophobic violence between South-Africa and Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study sought to illustrate how diplomatic protection can be used by states in order to request reparation to their nationals victims of mob violence abroad from another States. It attempted to demonstrate the extent to which a state under legal obligation in the international sphere to make reparation for its failure to protect foreigners in its jurisdiction.
It is expected that the study will guide the government of South Africa as regards the available mechanisms to seek redress to its nationals. Furthermore, it is hoped that the research builds interest in the area and inspire more academic research in this field. This study is also significant to the government of South Africa as a pointer to the detrimental effect of ignoring xenophobic violence in the country. Violent attacks on other country citizens can hamper the inter-country economic relationship between the two countries involved.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is focused on the xenophobic violence in South Africa and the economic implications on the South Africa – Nigeria relationship in the 21st century.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Xenophobia: Dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries.
Economy: An economy is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents.
International Relations: This allows nations to cooperate with one another, pool resources, and share information as a way to face global issues that go beyond any particular country or region. Contemporary global issues include pandemics, terrorism, and the environment.