ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THE ADOPTION OF EARLY MAIZE TECHNOLOGY ON PRODUCTIVITY AND FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF THE FARMERS
The study examined the impact of the adoption of early maize technology on productivity and food security status of farmers in Gwagwalada and Kuje area council of FCT Abuja. The study examined the rate of adoption of early maize varieties, determine the economic efficiency of the farmers that adopted early maize varieties in the study area, determine the factors that influence adoption of early maize varieties, determine the impact of adoption of early maize varieties on income and food security of farmers in the study area and identify the problems faced by farmers in the study area. Primary data were used for the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondent for the study. The primary data were obtained using structured questionnaires administered to 269 farmers. Descriptive statistics, adoption index, stochastic frontier model, logit regression model, t-test, food security line were used for the analysis of data. The result showed that DMR-ESR Y CIF2, AC 90 POOL 16DT STR, TZE-W DT STR C4, ACR 95 TZE COMP4 C3, TZE-WDT STR QPM C0 and ACR 90POOL 16 DT STR were the early maize varieties planted in the study area. DMR-ESR Y CIF2 was identified as the variety adopted by a larger proportion (21%). The major drivers of adoption in the study area were found to be farming experience, education, marital status, membership of cooperative societies, household income and extension contact. 11% of the farming household that adopted early maize varieties fall within the highest annual income range of above N599,000 with 18% for non adopters. 10% of the adopters are within the lowest income range of less than N100,000. The mean annual income of adopters was N412,720 and that of non-adopters wasN276,844 which implies that adopters of early maize varieties realized higher income than the non-adopters of the varieties. 79% of adopters with an average daily per capita household calorie consumption of 3606.30kcal were food secure while 44% of non-adopters were food secured. Adequate policy measures should be put in place to fast track seed multiplication and distribution and on-farm trials through effective extension service delivery so as to intensify and sustain the adoption of early maize varieties.
1.1 Background of the study
Agriculture in Nigeria is increasingly recognized to be central to sustained growth and improved economic development. Agriculture plays a significant role in food security, poverty alleviation and human development (Amaza and Maurice, 2015). Food security became a catch-phrase in the mid 1990s (Okezie and Okorie, 2015). The concept of food security has evolved, developed, multiplied and diversified since the World Food Conference in the 70s (Maxwell and Smith, 2012; Maxwell, 2016). Its main focus has shifted from global and national to household and individual food security and from food availability to food accessibility. It can be defined as the success of the local livelihood to guarantee access to sufficient food at the household level (Devereaux and Maxwell, 2011).
The failure of early solutions to food insecurity in the 1970s and 1980s was largely attributed to their technological bias, stressing production rather than equitable distribution, access, affordability and utilization of improved varieties of crops. Since then, it has become clear that food security revolves around complex issues that encompass a wide range of interrelated environmental, economic, social and political factors. An approach encompassing improve varieties of seed is required in addressing food security and lack of which pose serious challenge to many regions in their ability to address food security adequately (Vogel and Smith, 2002: Clover, 2003). Individuals have sufficient access to food when they have adequate incomes or other resources to purchase or barter to obtain levels of appropriate foods needed to maintain consumption of an adequate diet/nutrition level (United States Agency for International Development.