BIOCHEMISTRY

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

ABSTRACT

 Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used. TABLE OF CONTENTTitle pageCertificationDedicationAcknowledgmntAbstractTable of ContentCHAPTER ONE1.1 Introduction1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant1.3 Research aim and objectivesCHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Definition of Inflammation2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation2.2 Classes of Inflammation2.3 Types of Inflammation2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation2.4.0 Properties of Mediators2.4.1 Histamine2.4.2 Serotonin2.4.3 Cytokines2.4.4 Arachidonic acid 2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)2.4.6 Free Radicals2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals2.4.7.0 Complement system2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system2.4.7.2 The Kinin System2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugsCHAPTER THREEMATERIAL AND METHODS3.1 Materials3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents3.1.3 Animals3.2 Methodology3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials3.2.2 Extraction3.3 Fractionation3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extrat3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity testCHAPTER FOURResultCHAPTER FIVEDiscussionConclusionReferencesAppendixes