Format: MS WORD | Chapter: 1-5 | Pages: 65-80 | .
THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF BURANTASHI STEM ON ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
This work was carried out to investigate the phytochemical and proximate analysis of the effect of Burantashi stem on Erectile dysfunction. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat (suya) in Nigeria, found in the northern part of the country. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity (2nd International Consultation on Sexual Dysfunction – Paris, June 28th – July 1st, 2003). Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantashi stem as a Phosphodiesterase – 5 inhibitors (PDE5) used to treat Erectile Dysfunction.
Erectile dysfunction, ED, is a sexual dysfunction that affects the reproductive systems of both men and women. By definition according to National Institute of Health Consensus Developmental panel on Impotence (1993), in males, it is a sexual dysfunction characterized with the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is also known as male impotence or Baby D Syndrome. While in women, according to American psychiatric Association (1994), it is characterized with the persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response that otherwise is present during female sexual arousal and sexual activity is thus prevented. Hence, it is called women impotence or female erectile dysfunction.
The word impotence may also be used to describe other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse and reproduction, such as lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation or orgasm. Using the term “erectile dysfunction”, however, makes it clear that those other problems are not involved (NIH, 2005). An erection occurs as a hydraulic effect due to blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis and clitoris. The process is most often than not initiated as a result of sexual arousal, when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the pelvis. Erectile dysfunction is, therefore, indicated when an erection is consistently difficult or impossible to produce, despite arousal (laumann et al, 1999).
1.1 Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men
Erectile dysfunction, ED, varies in severity; some men have a total inability to achieve an erection, others have inconsistent ability to achieve an erection, and still others can sustain only brief erection. The variation in severity of erectile dysfunction makes estimating its frequency difficult. Many men also are reluctant to discuss erectile dysfunction with their doctors, and thus, the condition is under-diagnosed. Nevertheless, experts have estimated that ED affects 30 million men in the United States. Again, according to the statistical research carried out by Adegunloye and Eze, in 2002 and 1994 respectively in Nigeria, results show that about 23-26.4% of men suffer from this condition while according to Spector and Carey in 1999, discovered that about 4-9% of men suffer from the condition in the United States.
While erectile dysfunction can occur at any age, it is uncommon among young men and more common in the elderly. By the age of 45, most men have experienced erectile dysfunction at least some of the time. According to the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, complete impotence increases from 5% among men 40 years of age to 15% among men 70 years and older. Population studies conducted in the Netherlands found out that some degree of ED occurred in 20% of men between 50-54 and in 50% of men between ages 70-78. In 1998, the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey counted 1,520,000 doctor offices visited for ED.
1.2 Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in women
Erectile dysfunction which is known as female erectile dysfunction in women occurs in about 43% of American women (NIH Consensus Conference, 1993). And this medical condition is a persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain clitoral erection until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response that is normally present during female sexual arousal and sexual activity is therefore, absent. The individual having the condition is said to experience frigidity (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Again, according to Otubu et al., in 1989, about 8.7% of women suffer from this very condition in the United States while between 35.3-40%, according to Adegunloye in 2002 and Eze in 1994, of women in Nigeria suffer from this condition. Spector and Carey in 1994 reported 5-10% in the United States.
In addition, female erectile dysfunction occurs at any age but majorly in old age. Hence, the most significant age related change is menopause (Karen, 2000) and (Rod et al., 2008). However, erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes, atherosclerosis, hormonal imbalances, neurological problems etc. (organic causes) or stress, depression etc.Besides treating the underlying causes (organic or psychological), the first line treatment of ED consists of a trial of PDE5 inhibitor (the first of which was sildenafil or Viagra). In some cases, treatments can involve prostaglandin tablets in the urethra, intracarvenous injection with a fine needle into the penis or clitoris that cause swelling, a penis or clitoris prosthesis, a penis or clitoris pump or vascular surgery, estrogen replacement therapy for the women etc (Kendric et al., 2005).Although there are various methods and techniques that are used to treat this very condition, however, for the purpose of this project, the treatment is restricted to yohimbine, an extract from Pausinystalia yohimbe.